Apa parenthetical citation generator

Apa parenthetical citation generator DEFAULT

Citation Examples

  • Books and
    Reference Works
  • Journals and
    Periodicals
  • Webpages
    and Websites
  • Dissertations
    and Theses
  • Media

Books and Reference Works includes authored books, edited books, translated books, anthologies, religious works, classical works, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and diagnostic manuals. This template shows you how to cite them.

AuthorDateTitlePublisher InformationDOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.(2020).Title of book.Publisher Name.https://doi.org/xzy
Name of Group.Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name.
Editor, E. E. (Ed.).Title of book [Audiobook].https://xzy.com
Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).Title of book (E.E. Editor, Ed.).
Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.; N. Narrator, Narr.).
SectionPatterns and VariationsExampleNote
AuthorAuthor, A. A.Smith, E. C.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.Smith, E. C., & Johnson, F. G.
Name of Group.Human Genome consortium.
Editor, E. E. (Ed.).Smith, E. C. (Ed.).
Editor, E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).Smith, E. C., & Johnson F. G. (Eds.).
Date(Year).(2020).
TitleTitle of book.A Brief History of Time.
Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).A Brief History of Time (2nd ed., Vol. 4).Use this template when citing one volume of a multivolume work.
Title of book (E.E. Editor, Ed.).A Brief History of Time (E. C. Smith, Ed.).Use this template when citing a book with an Editor.
Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.).A Brief History of Time (P. Miller, Trans.).When a book was translated, indicate it with a "Trans.".
Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook].A Brief History of Time (M. Dale) [Audiobook].You only need to note that you have used an audiobook when the content is not the same as in the text version of the book. When the content has been changed or the audiobook was released in a different year than the text version, you need to note it in your citation.
Publisher InformationPublisher Name.Springer.
DOI or URLhttps://doi.org/xzyhttps://doi.org/10.1007/BF01074212If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI, but if the source only has a URL, include the URL.
https://xzy.comhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01074212If a source only has an URL, but no DOI, include the URL.

EXAMPLEAuthored book with a DOI

See, M. (2012). Greenhouse gas emissions: Global business aspects. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-56908-1

Parenthetical citation: (See, 2012)

Narrative citation: See (2012)

EXAMPLEAuthored book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version

Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.

Parenthetical citation: (Hattie, 2008)

Narrative citation: Hattie (2008)

EXAMPLEEdited book with a DOI, with multiple authors

Raab, M., Lobinger, B., Hoffmann, S. O., Pizzera, A., & Laborde, S. (Eds.). (2015). Performance psychology: Perception, action, cognition, and emotion. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/c2014-0-03104-8

Parenthetical citation: (Raab et al., 2015)

Narrative citation: Raab et al. (2015)

EXAMPLEDictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia

Zalta, E. N. (Ed.). (2019). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/

Parenthetical citation: (Zalta, 2019)

Narrative citation: Zalta (2019)

EXAMPLEBook in another language

When a book is in a different language than your paper, include a translation of the book title in square brackets:

Meifert Matthias, T. (Ed.). (2010). Strategische personalentwicklung [Strategic HR Development]. Springer.

Periodicals are generally published on a continuous basis and include journals, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, and even blog posts. This template shows you how to cite them.

AuthorDateTitlePeriodical informationDOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.(2020).Title of article.Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14.https://doi.org/xzy
Name of group.(2020, January).Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12.https://xzy.com
Author, C. C. [username].(2020, February 16).Title of Periodical.
Username.
SectionPatterns and VariationsExampleNotes
AuthorAuthor, A. A.Smith, E. C.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.Smith, E. C., & Johnson, F. G.
Name of group.Human Genome Consortium.
Username.Luna Tech.If a blog post or comment on an online article has no real name, credit their username.
Date(Year).(2020).Date presented for a journal.
(Year, Month).(2020, March).Date presented for a magazine, newspaper article, or blog post.
(Year, Month Day).(2020, March 15).Date presented for a magazine, newspaper article, or blog post.
TitleTitle of Article.Power and inequality in the global political economy.
Periodical informationTitle of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14.International Affairs, 93(2), 429–444.In this example, 93 would be the volume number, (2) the Issue, and 429-444 the page numbers.
Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12.PLOS ONE, 14(1), Article e0209899.This is an online article without page numbers, so instead of a page number you need to list the article number.
Title of Periodical.The Atlantic.When periodical information is missing (e.g. volume number, issue, page range), omit it from the reference.
DOI or URLhttps://doi.org/xzyhttps://doi.org/10.1038/nature10530If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI, but if the source only has a URL, include the URL.
https://xzy.comhttps://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2021/09/twenty-years-gone-911-bobby-mcilvaine/619490/If a source only has an URL, but no DOI, include the URL.

EXAMPLEJournal article with a DOI

Warren, R., Price, J., Graham, E., Forstenhaeusler, N., & VanDerWal, J. (2018). The projected effect on insects, vertebrates, and plants of limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C. Science (New York, N.Y.), 360(6390), 791–795. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar3646

Parenthetical citation: (Warren et al., 2018)

Narrative citation: Warren et al. (2018)

EXAMPLEJournal article with a DOI, 21 or more authors

Lindblad-Toh, K., Garber, M., Zuk, O., Lin, M. F., Parker, B. J., Washietl, S., Kheradpour, P., Ernst, J., Jordan, G., Mauceli, E., Ward, L. D., Lowe, C. B., Holloway, A. K., Clamp, M., Gnerre, S., Alföldi, J., Beal, K., Chang, J., Clawson, H., … Kellis, M. (2011). A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals. Nature, 478(7370), 476–482. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10530

Parenthetical citation: (Lindblad-Toh et al., 2011)

Narrative citation: Lindblad-Toh et al. (2011)

EXAMPLEMagazine article version

Bruenig, E. (2021, June 9). America’s dangerous obsession with innocence. Atlantic Monthly (Boston, Mass.: 1993). https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2021/06/innocence-project-death-row/619132/

Parenthetical citation: (Bruenig, 2021)

Narrative citation: Bruenig (2021)

EXAMPLENewsletter

Darwish, F. (2014). How being a cat person can dramatically enhance your psychological health. Psych Daily, 6(4), 4-5. https://www-psychdaily-com/the-pets-cats-report/emotional-health/

Parenthetical citation: (Darwish, 2014)

Narrative citation: Darwish (2014)

If you cite a source from a website and no other reference category fits and the work has no parent or overarching publication (e.g. journal or blog), use this template for your reference.

AuthorDateTitleWebsite nameURL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.(2020).Title of work.Site name.https://xzy.com
Name of Group.(2020, August).Retrieved December 22, 2020, from https://xzy.com
(2020, September 28).
(n.d.).
SectionPatterns and VariationsExampleNotes
AuthorAuthor, A. A.James, L. C.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.Perry, C., & James, L. C.
Name of Group.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Date(Year).(2020).Provide the most specific date possible.
(Year, Month).(2020, August).
(Year, Month Day).(2020, September 28).
(n.d.).(n.d.).
TitleTitle of work.Community Arts Investment Program.When a web page has no author use the title of the web page as the first element in the citation and reference.
Website nameSite name.London Arts Council.
URLhttps://xzy.comhttps://www.londonarts.ca/investments
Retrieved December 22, 2020, from https://xzy.comRetrieved August 9, 2021, from https://www.londonarts.ca/investmentsInclude a retrieval date only when the content is designed to change over time and the page is not archived.

EXAMPLE Webpage on a news website

France-Presse, A. (2021, June 10). Child labour worldwide increases for first time in 20 years. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/law/2021/jun/10/child-labour-worldwide-increases-for-first-time-in-20-years

Parenthetical citation: (France-Presse, 2021)

Narrative citation: France-Presse (2021)

EXAMPLEUniversity website

Hamido, K. A., & Essam, J. A. (n.d.). Use of artificial intelligence in forensic analyses. Cairo Medical School. http://www.med.cairo.edu/AANLIB/

Parenthetical citation: (Hamido & Essam, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Hamido and Essam (n.d.)

EXAMPLEBlog post

Priyadarshini, S. (n.d.). How outreach blends my worlds as a scientist and mom. Indigenus. http://blogs.nature.com/indigenus/2021/05/how-outreach-blends-my-worlds-as-a-scientist-and-mom.html

Parenthetical citation: (Priyadarshini, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Priyadarshini (n.d.)

EXAMPLEWebsite with no author

Neuroscience. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neuroscience

Parenthetical citation: ("Neuroscience", n.d.)

Narrative citation: "Neuroscience" (n.d.)

EXAMPLEGovernment website

Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy. (n.d.). Becoming a research volunteer. https://www.ECNE.gov/cne/sites/default/files/ohrp/research/ brochures/3panelfinal.pdf

Parenthetical citation: (Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Egyptian Center for Nuclear Energy (n.d.)

EXAMPLEEntry in an online reference work

Sameer, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Rashed (Ed.), The encyclopedia of psychology (Fall 2014 ed.). http://pyche.com/entries/behaviorism

Parenthetical citation: (Sameer, 2005)

Narrative citation: Sameer (2005)

References for dissertations and theses are divided by whether they are unpublished or published. Unpublished works must be retrieved directly from the university in print form. Published works are available from a database, a university archive, or a personal website. This is how you cite them:

AuthorDateTitleDatabase or Archive nameURL
Unpublished:
Author, A. A.(2020).Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.
Published:
Author, A. A.(2020).Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]Database Name.https://xyz.edu
Title of thesis [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the degree]Archive Name.

Unpublished works (only available at the college or univeristy in print):

SectionPatterns and VariationsExampleNotes
AuthorAuthor, A. A.Leone, A.
Date(Year).(2001).
TitleTitle of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].Evolution and Change: Town and Country in Late Antique North Africa [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation].
Database or Archive nameName of Institution Awarding the Degree.University of Leicester.

Published:

SectionPatterns and VariationsExampleNotes
AuthorAuthor, A. A.Anthony, H.
Date(Year).(2014).
TitleTitle of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]Link between childhood trauma and alcoholism [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida]
Title of thesis [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the degree]Link between childhood trauma and alcoholism [Master's thesis, University of Florida]
Database or Archive nameDatabase Name.FloridaLink.
Archive Name.UT Southwestern Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
URLhttps://xzy.eduhttps://utswmed-ir.tdl.org/handle/2152.5/941

EXAMPLEUnpublished dissertation or thesis

Eid, H. (2017). The anti-cancer effect of scorpion venom (Unpublished master’s thesis). Modern Sciences and Arts University.

Parenthetical citation: (Eid, 2017)

Narrative citation: Eid (2017)

EXAMPLEPublished dissertation or thesis from a database

Mccarthy, M. D. (2014). The relationship between sleep deprivation and student performance (Order No. 3682837) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Parenthetical citation: (Mccarthy, 2014)

Narrative citation: Mccarthy (2014)

EXAMPLEPublished dissertation or thesis from a database-no publication number

Brown, S. (2010). Impacts of jellyfish invasion in the red sea [Master’s thesis, American University in Cairo]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 2010)

Narrative citation: Brown (2010)

EXAMPLEPublished dissertation or thesis from an online platform

Anthony, H. (2014). Link between childhood trauma and alcoholism (Doctoral dissertation). FloridaLink. Retrieved from https://etd.floridalink.edu/handle/10919/82854

Parenthetical citation: (Anthony, 2014)

Narrative citation: Anthony (2014)

EXAMPLEDissertation or thesis in print

Hawk, E. J. (2017). Using artificial intelligence to prioritize covid-19 vaccine delivery (Master's thesis). Cairo University.

Parenthetical citation: (Hawk, 2017)

Narrative citation: Hawk (2017)

EXAMPLETED Talk

Azab, A. (2012, June). Why are people so rude? [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/why_are_people_so_rude

Parenthetical citation: (Azab, 2012)

Narrative citation: Azab (2012)

EXAMPLEYouTube video

Bomer, M. (2013, June 13). Does it puree? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97KJhK-9yvc

Parenthetical citation: (Bomer, 2013)

Narrative citation: Bomer (2013)

EXAMPLEPodcast

Abdelaal, D. R (Host). (2017–2018). What should you be doing in your twenties? [Audio podcast]. The millennial. https://themillenial.com/

Parenthetical citation: (Abdelaal, 2017–2018)

Narrative citation: Abdelaal (2017–2018)

EXAMPLEPhotograph

Hassan, A. (1908). The Nile River [Photograph]. Time. http://100photos.time.com/photos/asad-hassan-the-nile-river

Parenthetical citation: (Hassan, 1908)

Narrative citation: Hassan (1908)

EXAMPLEFacebook post

The girl project. (2020, January 10). Signs you have poor boundaries [Image attached] [Photo]. Facebook.

Parenthetical citation: (The girl project, 2020)

Narrative citation: The girl project (2020)

While all the specific rules of the APA citation style might sound very complicated, you don't need to worry about getting them wrong with BibGuru. Use our APA 7 citation maker to create the fastest and most accurate APA citations possible.

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APA citation quick guide

APA 7th edition publication manual

APA Style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the social and behavioral sciences. The Scribbr APA Citation Generator automatically generates accurate references and in-text citations for free.

This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). We also offer a 6th edition guide.

APA in-text citations

The basics

APA in-text citations include the author’s last name, publication date, and, if relevant, a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example, (Smith, 2021, p. 170). See it as a shorter version of the entry in the reference list.

You should include in-text citations every time you’re quoting or paraphrasing someone else’s ideas or words. In doing so, you give credit to the original author and avoid plagiarism.

Parenthetical vs. narrative citation

The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020).
  • Narrative citation:Smith(2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

Author typeParenthetical citationNarrative citation
One author(Smith, 2020)Smith (2020)
Two authors(Smith & Jones, 2020)Smith and Jones (2020)
Three or more authors(Smith et al., 2020)Smith et al. (2020)
Organization(Scribbr, 2020)Scribbr (2020)

Missing information

When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.

Missing elementWhat to doParenthetical citation
AuthorUse the source title.*(Source Title, 2020)
DateWrite “n.d.” for “no date.”(Smith, n.d.)
Page numberEither use an alternative locator or
omit the page number.
(Smith, 2020, Chapter 3) or
(Smith, 2020)
*Format the title based on its formatting in the corresponding reference entry (either italicized or, if the title in the reference entry is not italicized, placed in quotation marks). Use title case capitalization.

APA references

The basics

APA references generally include information about the author, publication date, title, and source. Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

Reference examples

Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.

Generate APA citations for free

Missing information

It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.

Missing elementWhat to doReference format
AuthorStart the reference entry with the source title.Title. (Date). Source.
DateWrite “n.d.” for “no date”.Author. (n.d.). Title. Source.
TitleDescribe the work in square brackets.Author. (Date). [Description]. Source.

Formatting the APA reference page

The basics

APA reference page (7th edition)On the reference page, you list all the sources that you’ve cited throughout your paper. Place the page, right after the main body and before any appendices.

On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order.

Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  • Double spacing (within and between references)
  • Hanging indent of ½ inch
  • Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
  • Page number in the top right header

Which sources to include

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).

Tools and resources

In addition to the APA Citation Generator, Scribbr provides many more tools and resources that help millions of students and academics every month.

  • Citation Checker: Upload your paper and have artificial intelligence check your citations for errors and inconsistencies.
  • Plagiarism Checker: Detect, understand, and resolve plagiarism by comparing your paper with billions of sources.
  • Guides and videos: Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why should I use the Scribbr Citation Generator?

The Scribbr Citation Generator is easy to use, accurate, and accessible for all students. Some features you’ll definitely like include:

  • Lightning-fast autocite using a URL, DOI, ISBN or title
  • Smart citation forms that help you avoid incorrect citations
  • Quick tips that make citing easier
  • No costs, no ads, no limitations
Can I download my sources to Word?

Yes, after creating your citations you can download your reference list to Word. Simply click on download > Microsoft Word (.docx) in the menu above your reference list.

To save you some time, the downloaded file is already set up in APA or MLA format, depending on which citation style you used.

What does a citation generator do?

A citation generator is an easy tool that helps you cite sources in a specific citation style.

You fill in the forms with information about a source, such as the author(s), title, and publication date. The tool then creates an accurate reference and in-text citation that you can use to give credit to the original author.

Sours: https://www.scribbr.com/apa-citation-generator/
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Free BibMe APA Format Guide & Generator

Welcome to a comprehensive guide on citing sources and formatting papers in the American Psychological Association style. Below are reference and in-text citation examples, directions on formatting your paper, and background information on the style.

What is APA?

APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating this specific citation style. They are not associated with this guide, but all of the information here provides guidance to using their style and follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

What is APA Citing?

APA style is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavioral and social sciences, not just psychology. There are other citation formats and styles such as MLA and Chicago citation style, but this one is most popular in the fields of science.

Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components.

The information in this guide follows the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and how to properly cite sources. This webpage was created solely by BibMe to help students and researchers focus on how to create APA citations.

The 7th edition of the Publication Manual was released in 2020. We address differences between the 6th and 7th editions at the end of this guide.

For more information, please consult the official Publication Manual.

We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the authors of the work you used to help you with your own research. When you use another person's information to help you with your project, it is important to acknowledge that individual or group. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work. Also, read up on how to be careful of plagiarism.

What Does it Look Like?

There are two types of citations:

  • In-text/Parenthetical citations: Those that are found in the body of a project are called in-text/parenthetical citations. They're added into a project when a direct quote or paraphrase has been added into your work. These citations only include the name(s) of the author(s), date, and page number(s), if applicable.
  • References: Those that are found on the final part of a project are called references. They're are found in the reference list (sometimes called APA works cited by some teachers), which is at the end of the assignment. It includes the full information of all sources used in a project. These types of references show the author's name, date published, title, publisher, URL, and other key pieces of information.

Depending on the types of sources used for your project, the structure for each citation may look different. There is a certain format or structure for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate APA format structure for your sources.

Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of in-text citations and reference citations.

Still wondering, "What is APA format?" To learn more about APA referencing, including access to the American Psychological Association\'s blog, formatting questions, & referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style. To learn more about using the BibMe service (BibMe.com) to help build APA citation website references, see the section below titled, "Using the BibMe Online Writing Center to Create Citations for your Reference List or APA Bibliography."

In-Text Citations Overview

When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text or parenthetical citation into the body of your project, immediately following it.

An APA in-text citation may look similar to this:

Author's Last name (Year) states that "direct quote" or paraphrase (page number).

Parenthetical citations look like this:

"Direct quote" or paraphrase (Author's Last name, Year, Page number).

These types of APA citations always have the author and the date together.

Only direct quotes need a page number. For paraphrased information, it isn't necessary, but helpful for the reader.

See the section below titled, "In-Text or Parenthetical Citations," for a full explanation and instructions.

Full References Overview

Each source used in your project is listed as a full citation on the APA reference page, which is usually the last part of a project.

The structure for each citation is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see APA format examples of some common source formats.

Most print and offline citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order:

Author's Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of source. Publisher.

Most online citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order:

Author's Last name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of source. URL

To see how to format each section, scroll down to the appropriate areas of this guide. There is a section on authors, one on publication dates, another on titles, publishers, and on online information.

To determine the exact APA citation format for your full citations, scroll down to the section titled, "Common Examples."

For a detailed explanation on formatting your reference list, scroll down to the section titled, "Your Reference List."

Here's a quick snapshot of the basics:

All in-text citations included throughout the paper should have a corresponding full reference at the end of the project.

Full references go on their own page at the end of a project. Title the page "References"

References are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference (usually the author's last name, sometimes the title).

  1. If the reference begins with the words A, An, or The, ignore them and alphabetize the reference by the word following it.

If you're looking for an easy way to create your references and citations, use BibMe's free APA citation machine, which automatically formats your sources quickly and easily.

How to Structure Authors

Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. End this information with a period.

APA format example:

In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using the BibMe APA citation builder, click "Add another contributor" to add additional author names. Our free citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them.

Multiple authors, same last name:

If your reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets.

Example:

Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March. Viking.

Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen. Harper & Brothers.

No author:

When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title followed by the year in parentheses.

Editors:

When citing an entire edited book in APA format, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also APA citation format for chapters in edited books.

Comparison chart:

Use this handy chart to determine how to format author names in citations and references.

How to Structure Publication Dates

General structure is:

  • Year, Month Day
  • Example: 1998, March 22

Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. In APA format for periodicals, include the month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses, which stands for no date. For more details, see Section 9.14 of the Publication Manual.

How to Structure the Title

For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period.

Example:

For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. End it with a period.

Example:

The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview.

For web pages on websites: Same as above. The web page title is italicized.

Example:

Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Grantland. http://grantland.com/the-triangle/the-tale-of-two-flaccos/

For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Each important word should start with a capital letter.

Example:

The Boston Globe

If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description in brackets directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter.

Example:

New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht

How to Structure Publication Information

Publisher Location

In previous editions of the publication manual, books and sources that were not periodicals indicated the city and state of publication. However, in the 7th edition, the location of publication is no longer given except “for works associated with specific locations, such as conference presentations” (p. 297).

For conference presentations, give the city, state/province/territory, and country. If in the US, abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location.

Examples:

  • Philadelphia, PA:
  • Rotterdam, Netherlands:

Periodical Volume and Number

For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers.

Example:

Journal of Education for Library and Information Science,57(1), 79-82.

If you're citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers.

How to Structure the Publisher

The names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals.

For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher's name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher's name. End this information with a period (See Section 9.29 in the Publication manual for more details).

Example:

Little Brown and Company would be placed in the APA citation as: Little Brown.

Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as: Oxford University Press.

How to Structure Online Sources

For sources found online:

  • include the URL at the end of the citation
  • do not place a period after the URL

If you're citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier. A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique string of numbers and letters assigned by a registration agency. The DOI is used to identify and provide a permanent link to its location on the Internet. The DOI is assigned when an article is published and made electronically. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you're citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx. The x's indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. See sections 9.35-36 in the Publication manual for more details.

If you're using the automatic BibMe APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number.

Example:

Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world's fastest SD card. http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO

Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and Open Oregon State. Open Praxis,8(2), 123-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.8.2.290

Looking for more help and clarification? Check out this great resource!

Citations for Print Books

Author's Last name, First name initial. Middle name initial. (Year published). Title of book. Publisher.

Example:

Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. Simon and Schuster.

Looking for an APA formatter? Don't forget that the BibMe APA citation generator creates citations quickly and easily.

Notes: When creating an APA book citation, keep these in mind:

  • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles, as well as the first letter of any proper nouns.
  • The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be stated and italicized.

Citations for Edited Books

Most edited books state on the cover or title page that they are edited by an author or multiple authors. The format is the same as a print book, except the editor's name is in the author's position. Include a parentheses afterwards with the abbreviation (Ed.) for an edited book by one author or (Eds.) for an edited book with two or more authors.

Editor, F. M. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book. Publisher.

Example:

Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology. Springer-Verlag.

Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

Some edited books contain chapters written by various authors. Use the format below to cite an author's individual chapter in an edited book.

Chapter author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Publisher.

Notice that for APA style, the title of the chapter is not italicized, while the title of the book is. In addition, the chapter author's name is reversed at the beginning of the reference, but the editor's name is written in standard order.

Example:

Longacre, W. A., & Ayres, J. E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S. R. Binford & L. R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C&lpg=PP1&dq=archeology&pg=PR9#v=onepage&q=archeology&f=false

In the above example, Longacre and Ayers are the authors of the individual chapter and Binford & Binford are the editors of the entire book.

Citing an E-book from an E-reader

E-book is short for "electronic book." It is a digital version of a book that can be read on a computer, e-reader (Kindle, Nook, etc.), or other electronic devices. Include the DOI or URL if one exists for the e-book.

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of work. https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx or URL

https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx is used when a source has a DOI number. If the e-book you're citing has a DOI number, use it in the APA citation. DOIs are preferred over URLs.

How to cite in APA (an e-book example):

Eggers, D. (2008). The circle. https://www.amazon.com

Citing an E-book Found in a Database and Online

Use this format when citing an e-book that is either found on a website, or found on a subscription database. APA formatting for this is very similar to the structure of a print book. The only difference? Instead of the publisher information, include the DOI number or URL.

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of work. https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx OR URL

When citing an online book or e-book, keep in mind:

  • A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to its location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation. In place of the x's in the DOI format, place the 10 digit DOI number.
  • Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation.

Example:

Sayre, R. K., Devercelli, A. E., Neuman, M. J., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Investment in early childhood development: Review of the world bank's recent experience. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0403-8

Citations for Chapters in E-books

Need to cite a chapter in an e-book? No problem! Citing a chapter in an e-book is very similar to citing a chapter in a print book. Instead of including the publisher information, include a DOI number (if one is displayed) or the URL.

Chapter author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx or URL

Epstein W. M. (1999). The ineffectiveness of psychotherapy. In C. Feltham (Ed.), Controversies in psychotherapy and counselling (pp. 65-73). https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446217801.n8

Citations for Websites

How to cite a web page on a website in APA:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day published). Title of article or page. Site Name. URL

APA website citation example:

Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Grantland. http://grantland.com/the-triangle/the-tale-of-two-flaccos/

Citing a web page with a group author:

Group Name. (Year, Month Date published). Title of wep page. Saite Name included if different from Group Name. URL

Examples:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, February 3). Be prepared to stay safe and healthy in winter. https://www.cdc.gov/features/winterweather/index.html

National Park Service. (n.d.). Enchanting landscapes beneath the parks. https://www.nps.gov/subjects/caves/index.htm

Note: "n.d." stands for "no date" and is used when there is no publication date.

The above follows Section 10.16 of the Publication manual.

Still wondering how to cite a website in APA? Check out BibMe.com! It's quick, simple, and free! Our APA citation machine also builds references for many other styles as well!

Citations for Journal Articles Found in Print

Today, most journal articles are found online, but you may be lucky enough to score a copy of a print version for your research project. If so, use the structure below for your reference:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.

Notice that the article's title is only capitalized at the beginning. If there are any proper nouns or subtitles, capitalize the first letter for those words as well. The journal article's title and the volume number are both italicized. In addition, the title of the journal is in title case form (all important words are capitalized).

Example:

Nevin, A. (1990). The changing of teacher education special education. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children,13(3-4), 147-148.

Citations for Journal Articles Found Online

Databases are a popular place to find high quality journal articles. These references are formatted the same way as the print versions, except the DOI or URL is included at the end. If the article has a corresponding DOI number, use it instead of the URL. No URL? Use the homepage of the journal's website for the URL. See Section 10.1 in the Publication manual for additional examples.

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. https://doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx OR URL

Example:

Spreer, P., & Rauschnabel, P. A. (2016). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 36(3), 240-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100

Notes: When creating your online journal article citation, keep in mind:

  • This citation style does NOT require you to include the date of access/retrieval date or database information for electronic sources.
  • Use the URL of the journal homepage if there is no DOI assigned and the reference was retrieved online. * If the journal article has a DOI number assigned to it, include that number in the citation instead of a URL.
  • Don't forget, our free BibMe APA generator is simple to use! Check out BibMe Plus while you're at it! If you have a noun, conjunction, or preposition out of place, we'll flag it and offer suggestions for quick writing fixes!

Citations for a Newspaper Article in Print

Similar to journal articles, most individuals use online newspaper articles for research projects. However, if you're able to get your hands on a print version, use this structure for your reference:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. xx-xx.

Example:

Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, p. D5.

Notes: When creating your newspaper citation, keep in mind:

  • Begin page numbers with p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages).
  • Even if the article appears on non-consecutive pages, include all page numbers, and use a comma to separate them. Example: pp. C2, C5, C7-C9.
  • Include the full date of publication, not just the year like in most references.

Citations for Newspapers found Online

Use this structure when referencing a newspaper article found on a website or database:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. URL of newspaper's homepage

Example:

Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com

Notes: When citing a newspaper, keep in mind:

  • If the article was found on the newspaper's website, include the URL for the newspaper's homepage. For databases, include whatever URL is provided.
  • Multiple lines: If the URL runs onto a second line, only break URL before punctuation (except for http://).
  • This style does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. If you discovered a newspaper article via an online database, the database's information is NOT required for the citation either. If you're using the BibMe APA formatter, we make it easy for you by only including what you need in your references!

Citations for Magazines

Citing a magazine article in print:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), page range.

APA format citation:

Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.

Notes: When citing a magazine, keep in mind:

  • You can find the volume number with the other publication information of the magazine.
  • You can typically find page numbers at the bottom corners of a magazine article.
  • If you cannot locate an issue number, simply don't include it in the citation.

Citing a magazine article found online:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Year, Month of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue). URL

Example:

Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15). http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1179361,00.html

Notes: When creating an online magazine citation, keep in mind:

*The volume and issue number aren't always on the same page as the article. Check out the other parts of the website before leaving it out of the citation.

Citations for Blogs

Blogs are found on websites and display continuously updated content and posts by a single author, group, or company. A blog shows news updates, ideas, information, and many other types of entries. Similar to journal entries, a blog begins with the date the information was added followed by the content.

If you’re wondering how to cite a blog entry, look no further! Citing a blog is very similar to citing a website.

Citing a blog post:

Last name of Author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day blog post was published). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL

Example:

Gonzalez, J. (2019, February 3). Let’s give our teaching language a makeover. Cult of Pedagogy. https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/language-makeover/

Notice that the blog title only has a capital letter at the beginning. If there are any proper nouns in the title, capitalize the first letter for those as well.

Cite a blog post in the text of the paper:

(Author’s last name, Year)

OR

Author’s last name (Year)

Citations for Research Reports

A research, or technical report, is a piece of work that provides insight into research done by an individual researcher, a group of researchers, or a company or organization.

Citing a research report in print:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. or Organization. (Year published). Title of research report (Report No.). Publisher.

Note: If the publisher is the same as the author, use the name as the the “Author” and don't list the publisher.

Example:

Michigan Venture Capital Association. (2018). Annual research report.

Citing an online research report:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. or Organization. (Year published). Title of research report (Report No.). URL

Example:

Newson, S. E. & Berthinussen, A. (2019). Improving our understanding of the distribution and status of bats within the Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme area (BTO Research Report No. 716). https://www.bto.org/sites/default/files/publications/btorr716finalwebsite.pdf

Citations for Films

Producer's Last name, F. M. (Producer), & Director's Last name, F. M. (Director). (Release Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Studio.

Example:

Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Film]. Miramax.

Citations for Online Films & Videos:

Person who posted the video's Last name, F. M. [User name]. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title ofvideo [Video]. Publishing site. URL

If the name of the individual who posted the YouTube video is not available, begin the citation with the user name and do not place this information in brackets.

Smith, R. [Rick Smith] (2013, September 20). Favre to Moss! [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOP_L6hBjn8

Note: If you're discussing a certain part of the film or video in the body of your project, include a timestamp in the in-text or parenthetical citation. (Pulp Fiction, 1994, 1:15:30). The time stamp is Hours:Minutes:Seconds.

Citations for Images

Citing an image found in a print publication (such as a book or magazine) or museum:

Creator's Last name, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of image [Format]. Publisher/Museum.

Including the format helps the reader understand and visualize the type of image that is being referenced. It can be [Photograph], [Painting], or another medium.

Example:

Roege, W. J. (1938). St. Patrick's Cathedral, Fifth Avenue from 50th St to 51st Street [Photograph]. New York Historical Society.

Citing an image retrieved online:

Similar to citing an image in print, when citing an image found online, place the medium, or format, in the brackets. Capitalize the first letter.

Photographer, F. (Year of Publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Publisher. URL

Example:

Ferraro, A. (2014). Liberty enlightening the world [Digital image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/afer92/14278571753/in/set-72157644617030616

Citations for TV/Radio Broadcasts

Writer's Last name, F. M. (Writer), & Director's Last name, F. M. (Director). (Year of Airing). Episode title [TV series episode]. In F. M. Executive Producer's Last name (Executive Producer), TV series name. Channel.

Kand, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [TV series episode]. In C. Bays (Executive Producer), How I met your mother. CBS.

TV/Radio Broadcasts found online:

Writer, F. M. (Writer), & Director, F. M. (Director). (Year of Airing). Episode title [Television series episode]. In F. M. Executive Producer's Last name (Executive Producer), TV series name. URL

Kand, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [Television series episode]. In C. Bays (Executive Producer), How I met your mother. https://www.hulu.com/watch/1134858#i0,p30,d0

Note: When citing a TV show or episode, keep in mind:

  • IMDB is a great resource for finding the information needed for your citation (Director, Writer, Executive Producer, etc.) * This information can also be found in the opening and closing credits of the show.

Type what you find into the BibMe APA formatter. We'll do the work for you and structure your references properly!

Citations for Songs

To cite in APA a song from an album listened to online, use the following structure:

Songwriter's Last name, F. M. (Copyright year). Title of song [Song recorded by F. M. Last name]. On Album title. Publisher. URL

Notes:

  • If the song is done by a band or group, include the band or group's name instead of an individual's name.
  • Only include the "Recorded by F. M. Last name" portion if it's a different individual than the writer.
  • The format can be CD, Online song, mp3, or any other simple description to allow the reader to understand the format.

Swift, T. (2008). Love Story [Song]. On Fearless. Big Machine Records.

If you're using the BibMe APA citation generator to build your references, choose "Music/Audio" from the source options.

Citations for Interviews

A personal interview should NOT be included in a reference list. They are not considered recoverable data (they cannot be found by a researcher). You should reference personal interviews as citations in the body of the project instead.

Example:

(J. Doe, personal communication, December 12, 2004)

Citations for Encyclopedia and Dictionary Entries

Encyclopedia/Dictionary in print:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Publication Year). Entry title. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia or dictionary (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

Example:

Kammen, C., & Wilson, A. H. (2012). Monuments. Encyclopedia of local history. (pp. 363-364). AltaMira Press.

Encyclopedia/Dictionary online with author(s):

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Publication Year or n.d.). Entry title. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia or dictionary. Publisher. Retrieved date, from URL

Encyclopedia/Dictionary online with group author:

Publisher or group name (Publication Year or n.d.). Entry title. In Title of encyclopedia or dictionary. Retrieved date, from URL

Example:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Taciturn. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved February 10, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/taciturn

If an entry looks like it goes through many updates, use “n.d.” as the publication date and show the date you retrieved it. If using an archived version, no retrieval date is needed.

How to Reference a Lecture

This style of reference would be used if you were citing a set of notes from a lecture (e.g., PowerPoint or Google slides provided by your instructor).

Citing online lecture notes or presentation slides:

Author's Last name, F. M. (Publication year). Name or title of lecture [Lectures notes or PowerPoint slides]. URL

Example:

Saito, T. (2012). Technology and me: A personal timeline of educational technology [PowerPoint slides]. http://www.slideshare.net/Bclari25/educational-technology-ppt

Tip: If you want to cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture, this is considered personal communication. The notes may not be available online for others outside of the class to access. Refer to it only in the body of your essay or project. You can follow the style guide for personal communication available in the Interview section.

Citing Social Media

Social media is everywhere, even in research projects. Many influencers post thoughts, inspirational quotes, and intriguing stories in their profiles.

If you need to cite a post from a social media platform, use this structure:

Last name, F. M. or Group Name who posted the content [@Username]. (Year, Month Day posted). First 20 words of the post [Format]. Social Media Site Name. URL

Last name, F. M. or Group Name who posted the content [@Username]. (Year, Month Day posted). First 20 words of the post [Format]. Social Media Site Name. URL

A retrieval date (date you saw the page) is needed for profile pages since the contents are likely to change over time (e.g., Instagram profile, Facebook page etc.). The structure for that is:

Last name, F. M. or Group Name who posted the content [@Username]. (n.d.). Tweets or Home [Format]. Social Media Site Name. Retrieved from month day, year, URL

Some things to keep in mind:

  • If the name of the individual or group is unknown, begin the citation with the handle and remove the brackets.
  • If the post only includes an image or video without any text, instead of including the first 40 words of the post provide a description of the post and place it in brackets: [video of a NASA rocket leaving the atmosphere].
  • The format, in brackets, can be [Tweet], [Facebook status update], [Facebook page], [Instagram photo], [Instagram video], or for a Reddit post, use [Online forum comment].

Citing a Tweet from Twitter:

Example:

BibMe [@BibMe]. (2020, January 22). How to cite primary sources ow.ly/fUb950vG3N5 [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/bibme/status/1219976780746043392

Citing a Twitter profile:

BibMe [@BibMe] (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved February 18, 2020, from https://twitter.com/BibMe

Citing a Facebook post:

Example:

DeGeneres, E. (2018, December 21). Holiday party goals [Facebook status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ellentv/photos/a.182755292239/10157188088077240/?type=3&theater

Citing a Facebook page:

Example:

Smithsonian’s National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.) Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/nationalzoo

Citing an Instagram post:

Example:

Lipa, D. [@dualipa]. (2018, December 2). A lil Hollywood glam brunch! Thank you @variety for by Breakthrough Artist of the Year award and thank you for [Instagram photo]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Bq33SC2BAsr/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link

Since this citation style is commonly used in science-related disciplines, it makes sense that many students and scholars include tables in their projects.

It's a good idea to include a table in your project when:

  • There is a good amount of quantitative information
  • A table would promote understanding

Do not write out the information from the table in the text of your paper. Including the same information in two spots is repetitive. Either type out the quantitative information in your paper or use a table.

If you choose to include a table, make sure to:

  • Refer to it in the text and provide a brief overview or snapshot of its contents.
  • Refer to the table in the text using numbers. For example, "Table 3 shows the countries with the highest amount of spending per pupil."
  • Every table should be numbered. The table mentioned closest to the beginning of the paper should be Table 1. The next table referred to in the paper is Table 2.
  • If you're submitting your project for publication in a journal or elsewhere, place all of your tables, in number order, at the end of your project, after the reference list. If you're submitting your project for a class, most professors prefer tables to be situated close to mentions in text. Ask your teacher or professor which one they prefer.
  • Each table needs a title. The title of the table should match the content displayed in it. Create a name for your table that is easy to understand. Italicize the title and capitalize the first letter of all major key words.
  • Do not include any vertical lines, only horizontal. Your horizontal lines should be over and above any column headings.
    • Capitalize the first letter of every important word.
  • Your table can either be single or double spaced. Keep the spacing in tables consistent throughout your project.
  • If you believe your table needs further explanation, or if it needs additional information to help the reader with understanding, include a note below the table.
    • A general note provides an overview of any information related to the table as well as an explanation of any abbreviations or unique characters. If you reproduced any portion of the table, include that information in the general note as well. Begin your general note with "Note." in italics and ending with period.
    • A specific note explains information in a row, column, or individual cell. Place a tiny letter in the top right corner of the area to specify, and include information regarding it in the note below.
    • A probability note displays the number of possibilities in the table. Use an asterisk symbol in the table, and show the probability in the notes.

Sample Table:

Prior to adding your table into your paper, use this handy checklist to confirm you have all of the requirements:

__ Is it necessary to include the table?

__ Are only horizontal lines included?

__ Did you include a simple, straightforward title? Is it in italics?

__ Did you use either single spaces or double spaces? APA paper format requires you to keep your tables consistent across your project.

__ Are column headings included?

__ Are notes included below the table to provide understanding? Are the notes in the proper order? Start with general notes, then include specific notes, and end with probability notes.

__ Did you refer to the table in the written portion of your paper?

Still have questions? See Chapter 7 of the Publication manual.

What is an In-Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation?

The purpose of in-text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they're in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased in your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include a citation next to it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in the reference list, which is usually the last item in a project.

In-Text Citations for Direct Quotes

In-text and parenthetical citations are found immediately following any direct quotes or paraphrases. They should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves.

Example:

Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He stated, "no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment's safety" (London, 1903, p. 25).

Paraphrased Information

When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words (a paraphrase), it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information.

Example:

At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001).

How to Format In-Text and Parenthetical Citations

An in-text citation in APA displays the author's name directly in the sentence, or text, of the paper. Always place the year directly after the author's name. Authors and dates stick together like peanut butter and jelly! If you're citing a direct quote, place the page number at the end of the quote.

Parenthetical citations display the author's name and year in parentheses after a quote or paraphrase. If you're citing a direct quote, include the page number as well. If you're paraphrasing, it is up to you whether or not you'd like to include a page number.

Example of various ways to cite in the body of a project:

Smith (2014) states that, "the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works" (p. 82).

"The Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works" (Smith, 2014, p. 82).

If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text or parenthetical citation.

Example: (Franks & Beans, 2019)

If your source has three or more authors, only include the first author's name and follow it with et al.

Example: (Gilley et al., 2015)

If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group's name in full in the first in text or parenthetical citation. In any APA citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable.

Example:

1st citation:

(American Eagle Outfitters /[AEO/], 2017)

2nd and subsequent citations:

(AEO, 2017)

Still wondering how to in-text cite in APA? How about citing parenthetically? Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe writing tools can help create your in-text and parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you'll see the option to create a citation for the body of your project (in-text) in the APA format generator.

Need help with your writing? Give the BibMe Plus paper checker a whirl! Upload your paper or copy and paste it into the text box on the page. We'll run it through our innovative technology and let you know if there is an adjective, verb, or pronoun out of place, plus much, much more!

Your Reference List

The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the reference list, which is the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are all of the sources you quoted or paraphrased in the body of your paper. This means that every reference found in the reference list should have a matching in-text or parenthetical citation in your project. Where there is one, there has to be the other. Here are general guidelines:

  • Your reference page in APA should be titled "References"
  • Place the title in the center of the page and bold it.
  • It is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project.
  • All references are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.
  • The entire page should be double spaced.
  • Use a hanging indent for all citations. The first line of each citation needs to be flush against the left margin. Any additional lines are indented in a half inch.
  • If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication.
  • Refer to the section titled, "How to Structure the Title," for rules regarding capitalization of source titles.

Example:

Thompson, H. S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream. Random House.

Thompson, H. S. (1998). The rum diary. Simon & Schuster.

If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

Dr. Seuss. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. Random House.

Dr. Seuss. (1958). Yertle the turtle. Random House.

If a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title.

Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe.com helps you generate citations! Begin by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Try it out!

Sample Reference List:

APA Reference List

Here's more information with sample papers and tutorials. Further information acan be found in Chapter 9 of the Publication manual.

How to Format Your Paper in APA:

Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines:

In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and APA headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. See Chapter 2 of the Publication manual for more details on paper formatting.

Place the pages in the following order:

  1. Title page (Page 1)
  2. Abstract page (page 2)
  3. Text or body of research paper (start on page 3)
  4. Reference list
  5. Page for tables (if necessary)
  6. Page for figures (if necessary)
  7. Appendices page (if necessary)

Page numbers: The title page counts as page 1. Number subsequent pages using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4...).

Title Page in APA

Your title page should grace the front cover of your paper. It's sometimes called an APA cover page. Included on this page are seven items:

  1. Page number
  2. Title of paper
  3. Name of authors
  4. Affiliation; name of your school or institution
  5. Course name
  6. Instructor's name
  7. Date paper is due

What is a running head?

The running head shows the title of your paper. It is only required for professional papers (e.g., dissertations, journal submissions, etc.).

Student papers do not need a running head (but do need the page number).

If you use one, place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters. Use your word processor's "header" option. It will automatically place your running head in the appropriate position, against the left margin.

Across from the running head, against the right margin, include the page number. The APA title page is 1.

Title page example:

Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you!

Need help determining the title of your paper? Keep it simple and straight to the point. Exclude unnecessary terms such as "An Analysis of...." or "A Study of..." If your paper ends up being digitized and added to your school's research collection or a research database, a simple and effective title will help researchers locate it. It is recommended to keep it under 12 words and avoid abbreviations.

Order | Element | Format & Notes --- | --- | --- 0 | All elements, except page number | Centered, double-spaced lines 1 | Page number | Place “1” in the upper right corner of the page. Professional papers only: Include a running head. 2 | Title of paper | 3-4 lines from the top of the page; bolded, and title case 3 | Name of author(s) | Two double-spaced lines under the title. No font formatting (no bold italics, underline). Exclude any titles (such as Dr. or Ms.) and degrees (such as PhD). List all contributors; if there is more than one include the word “and” between the second to last and last names. 4 | Affiliation (school, department, etc.) | No font formatting. Usually includes the name of your department and university. 5 | Course name | No font formatting. Write the course name and number on your class materials: ENG 102, JPN301. 6 | Instructor | No font formatting. Show their name as they prefer, including titles and degrees. 7 | Date paper is due | Month Day, Year. Example: February 14, 2020

Example Title Page - Student Paper:

Running Head in APA

Example Title Page - Professional Paper:

Running Head in APA

If you're looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe.com.

Levels of Headings:

There are a lot of rules to follow when it comes to styling the header and title page, but there are even more rules when it comes to styling the various headings and sections in your research paper.

There are five sizes and styles, and they follow a top down approach.

In most cases, science-related papers and case studies have three sections: Method, Results, and Discussion. These three sections are considered “Level 1” and are aligned in the center of the page and in bold. Additional sections of the paper are styled as follows:

Overview of Levels

Level | Formatting --- | --- 1 | Center and bold. Use title case. 2 | Against the left margin and in bold. Use title case. Begin the next sentence on the next line, indented half an inch from the left margin. 3 | Against the left margin in bold and italics. Use title case. Begin your next sentence on the next line, and indented half an inch from the left margin. 4 | Indented half an inch from the left. Is in bold. Use title case. Begin your next sentence on the same line and immediately following the heading. 5 | Indented half an inch from the left. Is in bold and italics. Use title case. Begin your next sentence on the same line and immediately following the heading.

We’ve included a visual below to help you make sense of the five headings. Keep in mind, you do not need to have all five headings in your paper. You may only use the top two or three. It depends on the types of sections your paper includes.

Running Head in APA

Using the BibMe Online Writing Center to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography

Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe can help you generate your citations; simply enter a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information.

Click to see more styles, and if you'd like to cite your sources in MLA format, check out the BibMe MLA page. Other citation styles are available as well.

Not only will BibMe help you create your references quickly and painlessly, we'll also scan your paper with an innovative plagiarism checker. BibMe writing tools even helps to check your grammar, too! Improper usage of adverb? Missing an interjection? Determiner out of place? BibMe writing tools will highlight any areas of concern and offer suggestions to improve your writing. Try it out now!

The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research.

Since its inception, the Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 7th edition (2020). The previous 6th edition was released in 2009. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating an APA style citation for any type of electronic resource.

Today, there are close to 118,000 members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology.

Changes Between the 6th and 7th Editions

Below is a selection of notable citing differences between the two editions.

For journal articles with a DOI number, include the DOI as a URL.

6th edition example:

Lee, C.-H., & Mackinnon, R. (2019). Voltage sensor movements during Hyperpolarization in the HCN Channel. Cell Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.11.006

7th edition example:

Lee, C.-H., & Mackinnon, R. (2019). Voltage sensor movements during Hyperpolarization in the HCN Channel. Cell Studies. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.11.006

For ebooks, you no longer need to identify the format.

6th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore [Kindle].

7th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore.

Full book references no longer need to show where the publisher is located.

6th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore. London: Vintage Publishing.

7th edition example:

Murakami, H. (2014). Kafka on the shore. Vintage Publishing.

In-text citations for sources with more than 3 authors can use the notation “et al.” for brevity.

Structure:

(first author’s name et al., year published)

6th edition example:

(Anaydike, Braga, Talfah, Gonzalez, 1980)

7th edition example:

(Anaydike et al., 1980)

When including a website URL, do not include the words “Retrieved from” before the URL cited.

6th edition example:

Elan, P. (2019, December 6). 'A reflection of inner life': show explores history of the hoodie. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2019/dec/06/a-reflection-of-inner-life-show-explores-history-of-the-hoodie

7th edition example:

Elan, P. (2019, December 6). 'A reflection of inner life': show explores history of the hoodie. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2019/dec/06/a-reflection-of-inner-life-show-explores-history-of-the-hoodie

The citing format for tables and figures are now the same. For both, indicate a table number and name at the top, and a note at the bottom.

Here are a few important paper formatting changes: * Running head is only required for professional (not student) papers * Only a single space should be placed after punctuation. * The new style version endorses the use of the singular “they” as an option for a gender neutral pronoun. * The 7th edition promotes the use of “they” as a singular, gender-neutral pronoun. * In addition to the paper title, author name, and institutional affiliation, a cover page for a student paper should also have the course, instructor name, and due date

References

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/101037/0000165-000


Updated March 10, 2020

Edited and written by Elise Barbeau and Michele Kirschenbaum. Elise is a citation expert and has her master’s degree in public history/library science. She has experience in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Michele is a certified library media specialist who loves citations and teaching. She’s been writing about citing sources since 2014.

Helpful Tips for Your Citation

 

Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.

 

If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well.

 

Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!

Sours: https://www.bibme.org/apa
APA CITATION GENERATOR

What is Cite This For Me’s APA Citation Generator?

If you are working on a paper in the APA style, you know that formatting APA citations can be a complicated task that requires a lot of patience. Fortunately, referencing has never been so easy. Introducing your new best friend: the Cite This For Me APA citation generator. Using this automated citation machine to create accurate citations allows students to work smarter, leaving them more time to focus on their studies.

The Cite This For Me powerful citation generator fully-formats all of your APA citations in just a click. So if you’re unsure how to accurately create your citations in the APA format, or you need to cite all of your sources in record time, using the Cite This For Me accurate generator will help ensure you don’t lose valuable points on your work unnecessarily.

This guide provides you with everything you need to know to help ensure that your paper reflects all your hard work. Read ahead for tips on how to structure and present your work according to the APA formatting guidelines, how to avoid charges of plagiarism, and how to cite sources both in-text and in your reference list and bibliography.

Popular APA Citation Examples

Why Do I Need to Cite?

Essentially, citing is the crediting of sources used in academic work. When another source contributes to your work you must acknowledge the original author with an accurate reference, unless it is common knowledge (e.g., the Magna Carta was signed in 1215). Failing to cite all of your sources or citing them incorrectly constitutes plagiarism, which is considered a serious academic offense. It is important to remember that information doesn’t just belong to anyone who happens to stumble upon it. If you are caught plagiarizing it is more than likely that you will lose points on your assignment, or even face expulsion from your university.

APA citation format also stipulates that students and researchers should be wary of a type of plagiarism called “self-plagiarism.” This is when you reuse material that you previously wrote for a new writing assignment without signaling to the reader that you have done so by creating an APA format citation for your work. Presenting your own past work as new scholarship is still plagiarism, and could still have serious consequences.

Aside from avoiding plagiarism, attributing your research to its proper source is crucial in ensuring that your work is firmly anchored in academic tradition. Correctly citing your sources validates the statements and conclusions you make in your work by providing supporting evidence. For many students, citing can be a frustrating process, but it’s an excellent way to enhance the quality of your work and inject it with authority.

Imagine if all the stress of referencing simply vanished. Well, Cite This For Me’s APA citation generator is here to help you make that stress disappear – now you can create in-text citations and reference lists in the APA format without all of the usual frustrations of referencing.

What is the APA Citation Style?

The APA citation style is a parenthetical author-date style, meaning that you need to put the author’s last name and the publishing date into parentheses wherever another source is used in the narrative.

The APA format consists of in-text citations and a reference list, along with guidelines for formatting the paper itself. Both the in-text citations and the reference list can be created in the blink of an eye using the Cite This For Me APA reference generator.

Although primarily used by students and researchers studying the social and behavioral sciences, the APA format is used amongst other scientific publications for its editorial efficiency. The Cite This For Me APA citation generator uses an up to date version of the APA format, helping to ensure accuracy whether you are using the APA format generator for university assignments or are preparing research projects for publishing.

Aside from the APA format, there is a plethora of different citation styles out there – the use of which depends on your discipline, university requirements, your professor’s preference, or the publication you are submitting the work to. It is important to make sure that you are using the correct style – so if you’re unsure, consult your department and follow their guidelines exactly.

It is important to note that APA style citation rules are fundamentally an editorial style, not a writing style per se. An editorial style refers to rules and guidelines a publisher uses to ensure that materials in their publications are presented consistently.

The citation generator above will generate your references in APA format as standard, and can show you how to cite APA sources in a few clicks. You can also sign up to Cite This For Me to select from thousands of widely used global college styles, including individual university variations. So, whether your professor prefers that you use the MLA format, or your discipline requires you to adopt the Chicago style citation, your referencing will be supported. Cite This For Me includes citation generators and handy guides for styles such as ASA, AMA or IEEE.

How Do I Create and Format My Citations?

Ever find yourself searching the web for things like “How to cite a website APA?” Then you’re in the right place. When you reference a source within an APA style paper; whether it is using a direct quote, repurposing an image, or simply referring to an idea or theory, you should:

  • Insert an in-text citation (the author’s surname and the date of publication within parentheses) straight after a direct quote
  • Insert an in-text citation at the end of the sentence where a source has contributed, but was not a direct quote
  • If you have already mentioned the author’s name in the sentence, you only need to insert the date immediately after their surname
  • Include page numbers within the parentheses (after the date), if referring to a particular page or section of the source
  • When citing a source with three to five authors, include all surnames for the first in-text citation, then use the first author’s surname followed by et al. for subsequent citations
  • When citing six or more authors – use the first author’s surname followed by et al. for all citations
  • If you are mentioning both the year and author in the text, don’t include an additional citation in parentheses – unless you are referring to a particular section of the source, in which case you should cite the page number
  • Provide an alphabetical list (ordered by author’s surname) of all sources used, titled ‘References’, on a separate page at the end of the narrative
  • Inclusive page numbers for the electronic version of a print source (i.e., a PDF)
  • Provide your appendices on a separate page after the reference list
  • Use ‘&’ in place of ‘and’ in both in-text citations and full references

Use the Cite This For Me APA citation maker to create citations with ease; this will allow you to add citations to your project, edit on the spot, and export separate in-text citations as well as fully-formatted reference lists.

APA Citation Examples (7th Edition)

Each APA reference must adhere to the rules set forth in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition. The following examples follow guidelines from Chapter 10 of the manual. Here are a few examples for you to get started:

In-text citation APA examples:

    • Page specified, author mentioned in text:

Lutz & Huitt (2010, p. 4) argue that “the statistical significance of …”

    • Page specified, author not mentioned in text:

The results were consistent throughout the study (Fernández-Manzanal, Rodríguez-Barreiro, & Carrasquer, 2007).

The study found that … (Sania et al., 2011)

The data presented …. (“How sleep enhances memory retention”, 2015).

Reference list examples:

    • Book citation, one author, multiple editions:

Hawking, S. W. (1998). A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes (10th ed.). New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.

Tyler, G. (n.d.). Evolution in the systems age. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=142&action=setvar&vartype=history&varname=bookmark&v1=1&v2=46&v3=2

    • Journal article, three authors, with a DOI:

Fernández-Manzanal, R., Rodríguez-Barreiro, L., & Carrasquer, J. (2007). Evaluation of environmental attitudes: Analysis and results of a scale applied to university students. Science Education, 91(6), 988–1009. doi:10.1002/sce.20218

* Note: For more information on the different types of journal article citations that can be made under APA 7, see section 10.1 of the Publication Manual, pp. 316-321.

    • How to cite a website in APA:

Veterans Affairs Canada. (2019, February 14). Indigenous people in the Second World War. https://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/history/historical-sheets/aborigin

    • Online newspaper article:

Smith, D. (2019, October 22). The banner, the rings, the season opener: Champion Raptors return on a night like no other. The Toronto Star. https://www.thestar.com/sports/raptors/2019/10/22/the-banner-the-rings-the-season-opener-champion-raptors-return-on-a-night-like-no-other.html

    • Article from an online news website (HuffPost, MSNBC, Vox, etc.):

Wade, L. (2013, March 6). ‘Sunstone’ crystal from British shipwreck may be vikings’ legendary navigation aid. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/sunstone-british-shipwreck-viking-navigation_n_2818858

CrashCourse. (2015, April 30). Mars: Crash course astronomy #15 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-88YWx71gE

How Do I Format My Reference List?

Drawing on a range of relevant sources in your work proves that you have read widely around your chosen topic, so it’s a surefire way to impress your reader.

To ensure your reader’s ease of comprehension you must adhere to the style’s formatting guidelines. In APA format, a list of all the sources that have directly contributed to your work should be placed on a new page at the end of the narrative and titled ‘References’ (center align the title), otherwise known as an APA works cited list. The references should all have a hanging indentation – the second and subsequent lines of each reference should start ½ inch from the margin.

You may also be required to provide a full APA bibliography. This is a comprehensive list of all the source material you used to complete the assignment, even if it was not cited in the text. It should include any book, journal, article etc. that you may have consulted throughout your research and writing process in order to get a deeper understanding of the subject at hand.

APA Format Example:

Fernández-Manzanal, R., Rodríguez-Barreiro, L., & Carrasquer, J. (2007). Evaluation of environmental attitudes: Analysis and results of a scale applied to university students. Science Education, 91(6), 988–1009. doi:10.1002/sce.20218

Sound like a lot of work? Although the style guidelines are strict in regard to how references should be formatted, the Cite This For Me APA citation machine can help take the weight off your shoulders by quickly compiling your reference list and bibliography.

APA Style Paper Formatting Guidelines (7th Edition)

When following the APA format guidelines, you must pay attention to presentation details such as font type, line spacing, margins and page headers to ensure your work is easily legible. The information below, as well as further formatting details, can be found in Chapter 2 of the APA 7 Publication Manual.

  • 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Easily readable font – Times New Roman recommended, 12pt. size
  • Double-space the entirety of the paper
  • Page numbers in the header, aligned to the right
  • Title of the paper in all capitals, 50 characters or less, in the header on each page of the body (the ‘running head’), aligned to the left. Only include a running head if you’re writing a professional paper
  • The paper should typically include four major sections – Title Page, Abstract, Main Body and References.
  • If infographics (tables, charts) were used in the narrative you should also add Appendices as a separate section at the end of the paper.

APA Title Page

Not all instructors will require a title page, also sometimes called an APA cover page. If they do, include these four parts:

  • Title of your paper
  • Running head (see above section)
  • Author’s/Your name
  • Institutional affiliation

The title of your paper should:

  • Be centered on the page and use title case (a combination of lower and uppercase letters).
  • Not be italicized, bolded, or underlined
  • Use a 12-point font
  • Be a maximum of 2 lines and not more than 12 words long
  • Not include abbreviations

Underneath the title, place the author’s name. If you wrote the paper, put your full name here. There’s no need to include titles or degrees (e.g., Ms., PhD, etc.).

Under the author’s name, place the institutional affiliation. For most students, this would be the name of the school, college or university you are attending. The title, author’s name, and institutional affiliation should all be double spaced. Here’s an example of an APA format title page:

Example title page in APA format

Writing Guidelines

The American Psychological Association also provides some helpful guidelines regarding overall best practices when writing academic and scientific papers. One important thing to be on the lookout for is bias in your writing. For instance, using the word “man” to represent humans as a species is neither scientific nor without potential bias.

Here are some good rules of thumb to help you avoid bias in your paper:

  • Always be specific in your writing and avoid generalizations.
  • Do not label people or test subjects unnecessarily.
  • When writing about participants in your experiment or study, be sure to acknowledge them as such appropriately. Use the term “participants” instead of “subjects.”
  • Use active voice instead of passive voice in your writing. For example, “the participants completed the task” vs. “the task was completed by the participants.”
  • Always be cautious when discussing topics such as sexual orientation, racial and ethnic identity, disabilities, etc.
  • Never change quotations to better serve your own ends or to better fit with your conclusions.

Important Terms for an APA Paper

Have you come across terms such as “abstract” or “appendices” in the manual and been unsure of their meanings? Here are some important terms to know when writing your next APA paper.

  • Abstract – A brief and concise summary of your paper’s contents.
  • Keywords – A list of significant keywords that the reader should be on the lookout for in your paper.
  • Introduction – Generally kicks of the rest of your paper by describing what you’re writing about. In scientific papers, this would outline the problem you are solving and your research strategy.
  • References – An APA reference page is the place where you list each source that you have cited via an APA in-text citation within the body of your paper.
  • Running Head – Running head is the name of APA headings that are used in research papers. They contain the title of the paper, the page number, and the term “Running head.”

A Brief History of the APA Format

APA stands for American Psychological Association, the scientific organization that assembles the publishing manual of the APA format. The style was developed in 1929 by a group of scientists to standardize scientific writing. It was created in the hopes that it would provide a coherent and professional manner of citing sources for students and researchers in the fields of social and behavioral sciences.

The first publication manual of the APA format was published in pursuit of a neat and efficient research formatting style, mainly for editorial purposes. Although some contemporary scientists argued that having such strict regulations restricted personal writing styles, the format has since become one of the most popular referencing styles. Today it is adopted in term papers, research reports, literature reviews, theoretical articles, case studies etc.

What’s New in the 7th Edition of APA Format?

It is important to note that citation styles and referencing formats change over time as they adapt to new source types and trends in academic publishing. APA format is no different, and in the fall of 2019 released the 7th edition of its Publication Manual.

Are you curious to know what the differences are between the 7th and 6th edition of APA style? Here are some of the important updates listed in the 7th edition of APA citing:

  • The location of the source’s publisher no longer needs to be included in the citation.
  • DOIs are formatted as URLs (i.e. https://doi.org/xxx), and no longer require the label “DOI” preceding them in the reference.
  • When making an APA website citation, URLs no longer need to be preceded by “Retrieved from.” The exception to this is when you include a date of retrieval, which is optional.
  • When making an APA book citation for an ebook, you no longer need to include the device or platform that you read the book on (i.e. “Kindle) is no longer required in the citation.
  • There is more flexibility in the 7th edition regarding APA paper format specifications on font.
  • The running head in an APA format title page no longer requires the words “Running head,” and instead now only requires a page number and a shortened version of your paper’s title.
  • You now need to only use one space after each period in your paper.

Before you switch to the newest version, it is a good idea to confirm with your teacher or instructor that this is the version of the style that they prefer you use.

How do I Create Accurate Citations with the Cite This For Me APA Generator?

Referencing giving you a headache? Let the Cite This For Me APA format generator remove the stress caused by citations by helping to turn in any of your sources into a fully-formatted citation. The generator will create your reference in two parts; an in-text citation and a full reference that is ready to be copied straight into your work.

To unlock the full potential of the APA citation maker, simply login to Cite This For Me multi-platform tool. Use the web platform to add and edit citations, export full projects and individual entries, utilize the add-ons, and save all of your citations in the cloud. Or, you can make use of Cite This For Me for Chrome – the browser extension for Google Chrome that allows you to cite APA sources and instantly create and edit a citation for any online web page, without leaving the one you’re viewing.

Cite This For Me gives students the confidence to achieve their full academic potential by encouraging them to research and cite diverse sources. The APA citation generator can help you cite many different kinds of sources; whether it be a PDF report, podcast, a musical score or many more.

Manage All Your Citations in One Place

Create projects, add notes, cite directly from the browser.

Sign up to Cite This For Me – the ultimate citation management tool.

Sours: https://www.citethisforme.com/us/citation-generator/apa

Generator apa parenthetical citation

A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format

Overview of this guide:

This page provides you with an overview of APA format, 7th edition. Included is information about referencing, various citation formats with examples for each source type, and other helpful information.

If you’re looking for MLA format, check out the Citation Machine MLA Guide. Also, visit the Citation Machine homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, and to see more styles.

Being responsible while researching

When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own assignment. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project (i.e., citing), which is one way to prevent plagiarism.

Plagiarism? What is it?

The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word, plagiare, which means “to kidnap.” The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author (American Psychological Association, 2020 p. 21). Plagiarism can be illegal and there can be serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including citations and references in your research project. Want to make them quickly and easily? Try the Citation Machine citation generator, which is found on our homepage.

All about citations & references

Citations and references should be included anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation and a reference. This guide explains how to make them.

APA style citations are added in the body of a research paper or project and references are added to the last page.

Citations, which are called in-text citations, are included when you’re adding information from another individual’s work into your own project. When you add text word-for-word from another source into your project, or take information from another source and place it in your own words and writing style (known as paraphrasing), you create an in-text citation. These citations are short in length and are placed in the main part of your project, directly after the borrowed information.

References are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page is the full information for any in-text citations found in the body of the project. These references are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.

An APA in-text citation includes only three items: the last name(s) of the author(s), the year the source was published, and sometimes the page or location of the information. References include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the full title of the source, and the URL or page range.

Why is it important to include citations & references

Including APA citations and references in your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging the original authors and their work.

Common ways students and scholars accidentally plagiarize

Believe it or not, there are instances when you could attempt to include in-text and full references in the appropriate places, but still accidentally plagiarize. Here are some common mistakes to be aware of:

Mistake #1 - Misquoting sources: If you plan to use a direct quote, make sure you copy it exactly as is. Sure, you can use part of the full quote or sentence, but if you decide to put quotation marks around any words, those words should match exactly what was found in the original source.

Here’s a line from The Little Prince, by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry:

“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves, and it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them.”

Here’s an acceptable option:

“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).

Here’s a misquote:

“Grown-ups barely ever understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).

Notice the slight change in the words. The incorrect phrasing is an instance of accidental plagiarism.

Mistake #2 - Problems with paraphrasing: When we paraphrase, we restate information using our own words and writing style. It’s not acceptable to substitute words from the original source with synonyms.

Let’s use the same sentence from The Little Prince.

A correct paraphrase could be:

de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything. It’s too bad adults are unable to comprehend anything on their own (p. 3).

An incorrect paraphrase would be:

de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares that adults never understand anything by themselves, and it is exhausting for kids to be always and forever clarifying things to them (p.3).

Notice how close the incorrect paraphrase is from the original. This is an instance of accidental plagiarism.

Make sure you quote and paraphrase properly in order to prevent accidental plagiarism.

If you’re having a difficult time paraphrasing properly, it is acceptable to paraphrase part of the text AND use a direct quote. Here’s an example:

de Saint-Exupery (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything, and “it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them” (p. 3).

Information About APA

Who created it?

The American Psychological Association is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 121,000 members, they provide educational opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology-related. They also have numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health.

The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating their own specific citation and reference style. Today, this format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. This guide covers general information about the style, but is not affiliated with the American Psychological Association.

Why was this style created?

This format was first developed in 1929 to form a standardized way for researchers in science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards and guidelines, individuals were recognizing the work of other authors by including bits and pieces of information in random order. There wasn’t a set way to format citations and references. You can probably imagine how difficult it was to understand the sources that were used for research projects!

Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at a citation or APA reference and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source.

The evolution of this style

The guide below is based on APA style 7th edition, which was released in 2020. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the publisher location for books and the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Both are no longer required to be included.

Details on the differences between the 6th and 7th editions is addressed later in this guide.

Citations & References

The appearance of citations & references

The format for references varies, but most use this general format:

Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title. URL

Researchers and scholars must look up the proper format for the source that they’re attempting to cite. Books have a certain format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re citing or referencing.

If you would like help citing your sources, CitationMachine.com has a citation generator that will help make the APA citation process much easier for you. To start, simply click on the source type you're citing:

In-text citations

An APA in-text citation is included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.

Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an APA in-text citation directly following it.

In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, these citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.

When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include a citation directly following it.

Citations in the text are found near a direct quote, paraphrased information, or next to a mention of another source. To see examples of some narrative/parenthetical citations in action, look at the image above, under “All About Citations & References.”

Note: *Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. Page numbers have a p. before the number, pp. before the page range, and para. before the paragraph number. This information is included to help the reader locate the exact portion of text themselves. It is unnecessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source.

Examples of APA in-text citations:

“Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Tóibín, 2009, p. 52).

and

Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent & Giles, 2017, p. 12).

If including the author’s name in the sentence, place the year in the parentheses directly next to his or her name. Add the page number at the end, unless it’s a source without any pages or paragraph numbers (See Section 8.10 of the Publication manual for more details).

In-text citation APA example:

According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.

The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, titled the “References.”

Here’s how to create in-text citations for specific amounts of authors:

APA citation with no author

When the source lacks an author’s name, place the title, year, and page number (if available) in the text. The title should be in italics if it sits alone (such as a movie, brochure, or report). If the source is part of a whole (as many web pages and articles are), place the title in quotation marks without italics (See Section 8.14 of the Publication manual).

Structure of an APA format citation in the text narratively, with the author's name missing:

Title of Source (Year) or “Title of Source” (Year)

OR

Structure of an APA style format citation, in parentheses at the end of the sentence, with the author’s name missing: (Title of Source, Year) or (“Title of Source,” Year)

Structure for one author

In the text, narratively: Last name of Author (Year)...(page number).

OR

In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author, Year, page number).

Structure for two authors

Place the authors in the order they appear on the source. Only use the ampersand in the parenthetical citations (see Section 8.17 of the Publication manual). Use ‘and’ to separate the author names if they’re in the text of the sentence.

In the text, narratively: Last name of Author 1 and Last name of Author 2 (Year)....(page number).

OR

In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author 1 & Last name of Author 2, Year, page number).

Structure for three or more authors

Only include the first listed author’s name in the first and any subsequent citations. Follow it with et al.

(Last name Author 1 et al., Year, page number)

(Agbayani et al., 2020, p. 99)

OR

Last name of Author 1 et al. (Year)...(page).

Agbayani et al. (2020)...(p. 99)

One author, multiple works, same year

What do you do when you want to cite multiple works by an author, and the sources all written in the same year?

Include the letters ‘a’ ‘b’ ‘c’ and so on after the year in the citation.

(Jackson, 2013a)

OR

Jackson (2013a)

Writers can even lump dates together.

Example: Jackson often studied mammals while in Africa (2013a, 2013b).

On the APA reference page, include the same letters in the full references.

Groups and organizations

Write out the full name of the group or organization in the first citation and place the abbreviation next to it in brackets. If the group or organization is cited again, only include the abbreviation. If it doesn’t have an abbreviation associated with it, write out the entire organization’s name each and every time (see Section 8.21 of the Publication manual).

Example:

First APA citation for an organization with an abbreviation: (World Health Organization [WHO], Year)

OR

World Health Organization (WHO, Year)

Notice in the example directly above, the name of the organization is written out in full in the text of the sentence, and the abbreviation is placed in parentheses next to it.

Subsequent APA citations in the text for an organization with an abbreviation: (WHO, Year) OR WHO (Year)

Example:

All citations in the text for an organization without an abbreviation: (Citation Machine, Year) or Citation Machine (Year)

One in-text citation, multiple works

Sometimes you’ll need to cite more than one work within an in-text citation. Follow the same format (author, year) format but place semicolons between works (p. 263).

Example:

(Obama, 2016; Monroe et al., 1820; Hoover & Coolidge, 1928)

Reminder: There are many citation tools available on CitationMachine.com. Head to our homepage to learn more, check out our APA citation website, and cite your sources easily! The most useful resource on our website? Our APA citation generator, which doesn’t just create full references, it’s also an APA in-text citation website! It’ll do both for you!

Click here to learn more about crediting work.

Reference list citation components

References display the full information for all the citations found in the body of a research project.

Some things to keep in mind when it comes to the references:

  • All references sit together on their own page, which is usually the last page(s) of a paper.
  • Title the page ‘References’
  • Place ‘References’ in the center of the page and bold it. Keep the title in the same font and size as the references. Do not italicize, underline, place the title in quotation marks, or increase the font size.
  • The entire page is double spaced.
  • All references are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference, which is usually the author’s last name. If the source lacks an author, alphabetize the source by the title (ignore A, An, or The)
  • All references have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples throughout this guide.
  • Remember, each and every citation in the text of the paper MUST have a full reference displayed in the reference list. The citations in the text provide the reader with a quick glimpse about the sources used, but the references in the reference list provide the reader with all the information needed to seek out the source themselves.

Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. See an APA sample paper reference list at the end of this entire section.

Author’s names

The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period (see Section 9.8 of the Publication manual).

Format: Last name, F. M.

Example:

Two or more authors

When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source. You can name up to 20 authors in the reference. For sources with 2 to 20 authors, place an ampersand (&) before the final author. Use this format:

Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.

OR

Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.

Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M., Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J., & He, Y.

If there are 21 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 19 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name.

Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , ...Lopez, G. S.

If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, like the one at CitationMachine.com, the names of the authors will format properly for you.

###No authors

If the source lacks an author, place the title in the first position in the reference (Section 9.12 of the Publication manual). When the source’s title begins with a number (Such as 101 Dalmatians), place the reference alphabetically as if the number was spelled out. 101 Dalmatians would be placed in the spot where ‘One hundred’ would go, but keep the numbers in their place.

Additionally, if the title begins with the words ‘A’, ‘An,’ or ‘The,’ ignore these words and place the title alphabetically according to the next word.

See the “Titles” section below for more information on formatting the title of sources.

###Corporate/Organization authors

On an APA reference page, corporate authors are always written out in full. In the text of your paper, you may have some abbreviations (such as UN for United Nations), but in the full references, always include the full names of the corporation or organization (following Section 9.11 of the official Publication manual).

Example:

United Nations. (2019). Libya: $202 million needed to bring life-saving aid to half a million people hit by humanitarian crisis. https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/02/1031981

Publication date & retrieval date

Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers and magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.”

Newspaper:

Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer. http://www.philly.com/

If using our APA Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically.

Giving a retrieval date is not needed unless the online content is likely to be frequently updated and changed (e.g., encyclopedia article, dictionary entry, Twitter profile, etc.).

Citation Machine [@CiteMachine]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 10, 2019, from https://twitter.com/CiteMachine

Titles

When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other non-periodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in the APA citation.

Examples:

Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

Roots: The saga of an American family.

For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title.

Examples:

Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.

For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title.

Example:

The Seattle Times.

A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks in the reference list. Here’s a good general rule: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics.

Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.

The Citation Machine citation generator will format the title in your citations automatically.

Additional information about the title

If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include a descriptive noun or two in brackets immediately following the title. Capitalize the first letter.

Example:

Kennedy, K., & Molen, G. R. (Producers), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Film]. USA: Universal.

Besides [Film], other common notations include:

  • [Audio podcast]
  • [Brochure]
  • [Letter to the editor]
  • [Television series episode]
  • [Tweet]
  • [Facebook page]
  • [Blog post]
  • [Lecture notes]
  • [PowerPoint presentation]
  • [Video file]

If you are using Citation Machine citing tools, additional information about the title is automatically added for you.

Publisher information

For books and reports, include the publisher name but not the location (see Section 9.29 of the Publication manual). Older editions of the style required the city, state and/or country, but this hasn't been the case since the 7th edition was released.

It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the reference. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.

For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. There is no space after the closing parenthesis and before the volume number.

Example:

Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., & Georgas, T. (2016). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(9), 907-923. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688

After including the publisher information, end this section with a period.

Examples:

Pearson.

Perseus Books.

Electronic source information:

For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of an APA citation.

DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL (see Section 9.34 in the Publication manual).

For DOIs, include the number in this format:

http://doi.org/xxxx

For URLs, type them in this format:

http:// or https://

Other information about electronic sources:

  • If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark.
  • Do not place a period at the end of the citation/URL.
  • It is unnecessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time (like in a Wikipedia article).
  • It is not necessary to include the names of databases

If using the Citation Machine APA citation website autocite features, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI. The Citation Machine APA template will properly cite your online sources for you.

Sample - Student Paper Reference Page APA:

Make sure you run your completed paper through the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader, which scans for grammar, spelling, and plagiarism. Whether it’s an adjective, verb, or pronoun out-of-place, our technology helps edits your paper for you!

Annotated bibliographies:

An APA annotated bibliography is a full bibliography that includes a small note for each reference citation. Each note should be short (1-2 paragraphs) and contain a summary or your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations on CitationMachine.net, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations.

Follow the publication manual guidelines on paper format and writing style. Let your instructor guide other details about your annotations. Still confused? Read our guide on annotated bibliographies.

These types of projects look different depending on the style you’re using. Use the link at the top of the page to access resources related to the Modern Language Association’s style. Here’s information related to Chicago citation style.

Page formatting

Need help with the design and formatting of your paper? Look no further! This section provides the ins and outs of properly displaying the information in your APA essay.

  • Font = Here are the recommended fonts and sizes (from Section 2.19 of the Publication manual):
    • Times New Roman, 12-point size.
    • Calibri, Arial, or Georgia, 11-point size
    • Lucida, Sans Unicode, or Computer Modern, 10-point size
  • Indents = Every paragraph should start with an indent.
  • Margins = 1 inch around the entire document
  • Spacing = Double space everything!

Arrange your pages in this order:

  • Page 1 - APA Title Page (see below for information on the title page)
  • Page 2 - Abstract (If your professor requests one)
  • Page 3 - First page of text
  • References begin on their own page. Include the list of references on the page after the text.
  • Tables and figures

Keep in mind that the order above is the recommendation for papers being submitted for peer review. If you’re writing an APA style paper for a class, your professor may be more lenient about the requirements. Also, if you’re submitting your paper for a specific journal, check the requirements on the journal’s website. Each journal has different rules and procedures.

Just a little nudge to remind you about the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader. Whether it’s a conjunction or interjection out of place, a misspelled word, or an out of place citation, we’ll offer suggestions for improvement! Don’t forget to check out our APA citation maker while you’re at it!

Running heads

In older editions of APA, running heads were required for all papers. Since the 7th edition, that’s changed.

  • Student paper: No running head
  • Professional paper: Include a running head

The running head displays the title of the paper and the page number on all pages of the paper. This header is found on every page of a professional paper (not a student paper), even on the title page (sometimes called an APA cover page) and reference list (taken from Section 2.8 of the Publication manual).

It's displayed all in capital letters at the top of the page. Across from the running head, along the right margin, is the page number.

  • Use the header feature in your word processor. Both Google Docs and Word have these features available.
  • Use one for the recommended fonts mentioned under "Page formatting."

Title pages

A title page, sometimes called an APA cover page, graces the cover of an essay or paper. An APA title page should follow rules from Section 2.3 of the official Publication manual and include:

  1. Page number, which is page 1
  2. Title of your project
    • Use title case and bold font
    • The title should be under 12 words in length
    • The title should be a direct explanation of the focus of the paper. Do not include any unnecessary descriptors such as “An Analysis of…” or “A Study of…”
  3. Names of the authors
    • Exclude any labels such as Mr., Ms., Dr, PhD...
  4. Name of the school or institution
  5. Course number and/or class name
  6. Name of your instructor, including their preferred honorifics (e.g., PhD, Dr., etc.)
  7. Paper’s due date
  8. If this is a professional paper, also include a running head. If this is a student paper, do not include one.

Follow the directions for the running head and page number in the section above. Below the running head, a few lines beneath, and centered in the middle of the page, should be the title. The next line below is the author’s name(s), followed by the name of the school or institution, the class or course name, your instructor’s name, and the paper’s due date.

All components on this page should be written in the same font and size as the rest of your paper. Double space the title, names, name of school or institution, and all other information on the page (except for the running head and page number).

Example - Student Title Page APA:

Example - Professional Title Page APA:

If you’re submitting your paper to a journal for publication, check the journal’s website for exact requirements. Each journal is different and some may request a different type of APA format cover page.

Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to CitationMachine.com’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen.

Abstracts

An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. It’s found in the beginning of a professional paper, right after the title page. Abstracts are meant to help readers determine whether to continue reading the entire document. With that in mind, try to craft the lead sentence to entice the reader to continue reading.

Here are a few tips:

  • Be factual and keep your opinions out. An abstract should accurately reflect the paper or dissertation and should not involve information or commentary not in the thesis.
  • Communicate your main thesis. What was the examined problem or hypothesis? A reader should know this from reading your abstract.
  • Keep it brief. Stick to the main points and don’t add unnecessary words or facts. It should not exceed 250 words.
  • Consider your paper’s purpose. It’s important to cater your abstract to your paper type and think about what information the target audience for that paper type would want. For example, an empirical article may mention methodology or participant description. A quantitative or qualitative meta-analysis would mention the different variables considered and how information was synthesized.
  • Use verbs over noun equivalents, and active voice. Example: “There was research into…” becomes “We researched…”

Formatting guidelines:

  • The abstract goes after the title page.
  • It should have the same font (size and type) as the rest of the paper.
  • It should stick to one page.
  • Double-space all page text.
  • Center and bold the word “Abstract” at the top of the paper.
  • Don’t indent the first line of the abstract body. The body should also be in plain text.
  • For the keywords, place it on the line after the abstract and indent the first line (but not subsequent lines). The word “Keywords:” is capitalized, italicized, and followed by a colon. The actual keywords are sentence case and in plan font.
  • List each keyword one after the other, and separate them by a comma.
  • After the last keyword, no ending punctuation is needed.

Example abstract:

Tables & Figures

If your paper includes a lot of numerical information or data, you may want to consider placing it into a table or a figure, rather than typing it all out. A visual figure or simple, organized table filled with numerical data is often easier for readers to digest and comprehend than tons of paragraphs filled with numbers. Chapter 7 of the Publication manual outlines formatting for tables and figures. Let's cover the basics below.

If you’d like to include a table or figure in your paper, here are a few key pieces of information to keep in mind:

  • Either place all tables and figures:
    1. At the end of the paper after the APA reference page
    2. In the text after it is first mentioned
  • The table first mentioned in the text should be titled ‘Table 1.’ The next table mentioned in the text is ‘Table 2,’ and so on. For figures, it would be 'Figure 1,' 'Figure 2,' and so forth.

  • Even though every table and figure is numbered, also create a title for each that describes the information it contains. Capitalize all important words in the title.
  • For tables, do not use any vertical lines, only use horizontal to break up information and headings.
  • Single spacing is acceptable to use in tables and figures. If you prefer double spacing your information, that is okay too.
  • Do not include extra information or “fluff.” Keep it simple!
  • Do not include the same exact information in the paper. Only include the complete information in one area—the table or the text.
  • All tables and figures must be referenced in the text. It is unacceptable to throw a table or figure into the back of the paper without first providing a brief summary or explanation of its relevance.

Example:

Publication Manual 6th Edition vs 7th Edition

The 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in 2009. The current 7th edition came out in the fall of 2019 and was designed to be more student focused, provide more guidance on accessibility, and address changes that have developed over the last 10 years.

Below, we’ve listed what we feel are the most relevant changes related to APA format.

Journals and DOIs

DOI stands for “digital object identifier.” Many journal articles use and have a unique DOI that should be included in a full citation.

When including a DOI in a citation, format it as a URL. Do not label it “DOI.” Articles without DOIs from databases are treated as print works. For example:

6th edition:

Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576(7785), 61–64. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8

7th edition:

Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576(7785), 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8

Citing Books

There are few new guidelines when you are citing a book. First, the publisher location no longer needs to be indicated.

6th edition:

Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. Bloomington, IN: First Books Library.

7th edition:

Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. First Books Library.

Second, the format of an ebook (e.g., Kindle, etc.) no longer needs to be indicated.

6th edition:

Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic [Kindle].

7th edition:

Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic.

Lastly, books from research databases without DOIs are treated the same as print works.

URLs

When using a URL in a citation, you no longer need to include the term “Retrieved from” before URLs (except with retrieval dates). The font should be blue and underlined, or black and not underlined.

6th Edition:

Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show

7th Edition:

Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show

Authors

Within a full APA citation, you may spell out up to 20 author names. For two to 20 authors, include an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. For sources with 21 or more authors, structure it as follows:

Structure: First 19 authors’ names, . . . Last author’s name.

7th edition example: Washington, G., Adams, J., Jefferson, T., Madison, J., Monroe, J., Adams, J. Q., Jackson, A., Van Buren, M., Harrison, W. H., Tyler, J., Polk, J. K., Taylor, Z., Filmore, M., Pierce, F., Buchanan, J., Lincoln, A., Johnson, A., Grant, U. S., Hayes, R. B., Garfield, . . . Trump, D.

When creating an in-text citation for a source with 3 or more authors, use “et al.” after the first author’s name. This helps abbreviate the mention.

6th Edition: (Honda, Johnson, Prosser, Rossi, 2019)

7th Edition: (Honda et al., 2019)

Tables and Figures

Instead of having different formats for tables and figures, both use one standardized format. Now both tables and figures have a number, a title, name of the table/figure, and a note at the bottom.

If you’re still typing into Google “how to cite a website APA” among other related questions and keywords, click here for further reading on the style.

When you’re through with your writing, toss your entire paper into the Citation Machine Plus plagiarism checker, which will scan your paper for grammar edits and give you up to 5 suggestions cards for free! Worry less about a determiner, preposition, or adverb out of place and focus on your research!

References

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) (2020). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000


Updated March 3, 2020

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.

Sours: https://www.citationmachine.net/apa
A review of Citation Producer: a MLA and APA Citation Generator

EasyBib APA Parenthetical and Narrative Citations Guide

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If you’re writing a research paper, thesis, or dissertation, you’ll need to properly credit any ideas or information you’ve included from other sources. The best way to do this is by including in-text citations and full references.

This guide is designed to help you create APA style parenthetical citations and narrative citations. You’ll learn the difference between APA parenthetical citations and narrative citations, as well as the correct way to make them within the text. The information from this guide comes from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Chapter 8 (there is no connection between the association and this guide).

We will cover:

  • Why We Include In-text Citations
  • Parenthetical vs Narrative In-Text Citations
  • What About Reference List Entries?
  • When to Include Page Numbers
  • Basic APA Citations
  • Narrative and Parenthetical Citations APA with Two Authors
  • Citing Works with Three or More Authors
  • Citing Works Without an Author
  • Citing a Specific Part of a Work
  • Citing Works With Group Authors or Corporate Authors
  • Citing Classical, Religious, or Translated Works
  • Citing and Formatting Block Quotes

Are you working in another citation format? MLA in-text & parenthetical citations are very different, so don’t assume all styles are the same! Other resources you might like to read up on areMLA works cited pages and how tocite websites in MLA.


Video Overview


Why We Include In-text Citations

An in-text citation is used to indicate what information comes from another source. It usually includes the source author and publication year. These citations are important because they:

  • Allow readers to easily locate the full reference on the final page. This means they can easily look up the source for further research.
  • Give proper credit to sources and other authors.
  • Demonstrate that you are a responsible and ethical researcher.

Parenthetical vs Narrative In-Text Citations

Both parenthetical and narrative citations are a type of in-text citation. They have these things in common:

  • They are used in the text of a paper.
  •  A full reference to the source mentioned in the in-text citation is included in the reference list at the end of a paper.
  • Usually, both include the author’s last name and the year the source was published.

 

Here is a brief overview of the differences:

APA Format Parenthetical CitationNarrative Citation
All information is placed in parentheses at the end of a sentence.

Example :

“Undeaf” is a word coined by Shakespeare in Richard II(Crystal, 2011).

Some of the source information is included within the sentence text.

 

Example:

According to Crystal (2011), “undeaf” is a word that was invented by Shakespeare.

 

Now that we have an idea of how each is unique, let’s examine each a little more closely.


Parenthetical Citations

The most common form of in-text citation is known as a parenthetical. This means that the reference information is provided within parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Parenthetical citation structure:

(Author Last Name, Year Published)

Parenthetical citation APA example:

(Crystal, 2011)

Example in use:

“Undeaf” is a word coined by Shakespeare in Richard II (Crystal, 2011).


Narrative Citations

If the sentence itself includes the author’s last name and/or the publication date, this information does not need to appear within the parenthetical citation. If all of the required citation elements are provided within the sentence, then no parenthetical citation is required.

Narrative citation example:

According to Crystal (2011), “undeaf” is a word that was invented by Shakespeare.

If you’re looking for another parenthetical citation APA website to learn about the origins, here’s an informative site. If you want a deeper dive into this topic, we have a full APA parenthetical citation website page, called APA in-text citation. If you’d like an overview on how to go about starting a research paper from scratch, our research page is a great place to start.


What About Reference List Entries?

These brief narrative and APA parenthetical citations are only half of what’s needed. A full reference to the source mentioned in the in-text citation is required. These references are placed on the final page of a paper or project.

Only a snippet is included in the body of the paper (via the in-text citation) to provide the reader with a quick reference, easy enough to read and breeze over, without having to stop the flow of reading through the paper. Readers use the information in the narrative or APA format parenthetical citation to then flip to the reference page to find the rest of the information about the source.

Full references include not only the author, date, and page numbers, but also the title of the source, the publisher, and other key pieces of information. Here is a reference entry example for the source that we used above:

Reference entry example:

Crystal, K. (2011). The story of English in 100 words. St. Martin’s Press.

To allow readers to easily locate the full reference on the final page, make sure the information in the narrative and APA format parenthetical citation matches the beginning of the information in the full reference.


When to Include Page Numbers 

For most in-text citations, an author name and a publication year are the only elements required. Adding page numbers is only necessary when you are citing a direct quotation from the work.

For works without pages, the Publication manual states to use other indicators (Section 8.28):

  • Heading or section
  • Specific paragraphs (para. 1)
  • A timestamp (10:11)
  • Chapter, canto, verse or line

If you’re searching for a narrative or APA parenthetical citation generator, look no further! Head to EasyBib.com to use an automatic citation generator which can help make your full references for the APA reference page or APA bibliography. There’s also an option to create your narrative or parenthetical citation. If you want to go the old-fashioned route, and learn how to create narrative references and how to use parenthetical citations APA, continue reading. If you’d like to learn how to style your final paper, read our APA format page.

Need resources related to MLA format? Check out the other tools and citation guides on EasyBib.com. As always, EasyBib.com has even more styles available.


Basic APA Citations

Parenthetical example – Authored book

It can be said that all postmodern art is a reaction to fake sincerity, or faked patriotism (Baxter, 2007).

Narrative example – Authored book

According to Baxter (2007), all forms of postmodern art can be seen as reactions to faked sincerity or faked patriotism.

Reference entry example – Authored book

Baxter, C. (2007). The art of subtext. Graywolf Press.


Narrative and Parenthetical Citations APA with Two Authors

If you are citing a reference entry that has two authors, include both names, separated by an ampersand.

APA style parenthetical citation structure:

(1st Author’s Last Name & 2nd Author’s Last Name, Year)

APA parenthetical citation example – Two authors:

Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart & Colbert, 2010).

Narrative example – Two authors:

Stewart and Colbert (2010) stated that rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking.

Reference entry example – Two authors:

Stewart and Colbert (2010) stated that rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking.


Citing Works With Three or More Authors

Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and the year published in all narrative and parenthetical citations APA.

Note: The reference entry should list the names of up to 20 authors.

Parenthetical example – Three or more authors:

Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart et al., 2010).

Narrative example – Three or more authors:

Stewart, Colbert, and Oliver (2010) stated that rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking.

Looking for an APA parenthetical citation website or tool to help you create a citation? Check out the resources at EasyBib.com.


Citing Works Without an Author

In cases where no author is provided and no author can be reasonably determined, the title of the work takes the place of the author name in the in-text citation.

There are a couple of things to consider if you are going to use the title of your work for the in-text citation:

  • If the title is italicized within your reference entry (as it would be for most periodicals and journal articles) then it also needs to be italicized inside the in-text citation.
  • If the title is not italicized in the reference entry, then it needs to be placed within quotation marks (“Title”) in the in-text citation. This is the case with individual book chapters, TV episodes, and other works that are entries within a larger body of work.
  • Work titles that appear inside an in-text citation should be in title case (all words capitalized) while the same title in the reference entry should be in sentence case (only the first word, proper nouns, and words appearing after a colon or semicolon are capitalized).

 

Parenthetical example – Source without an author:

Statistics confirm that the trend is rising (“New Data”, 2013).

Narrative Example – Source Without an Author:

In the chapter entitled “New Data” (2013), statistics confirm the trend is rising.

Even though it may seem like you don’t need to create a narrative or parenthetical citation APA format reference for works without an author, it’s still necessary! You may want to run your paper through our plagiarism checker, which scans for any instances of accidental plagiarism and also does a check for grammar. If you have an adjective, preposition, or noun that needs to be touched up, we’ve got you covered!


Citing a Specific Part of a Work

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page number or section identifier, such as chapters, tables or equations. The idea here is to give as much information as is necessary for your reader to easily locate the part of the work that is being referenced.

Parenthetical example – Direct quotation:

One of the most memorable quotes is when he says, “You are going to live a good and long life filled with great and terrible moments that you cannot even imagine yet!” to Augustus (Green, 2012, p. 272).

If the source does not include page numbers (such as online sources), you can reference any of the following elements based on which one you believe will be most helpful to your reader.

  • Section title or heading name
  • Paragraph number
  • Time stamp (for audiovisual works)
  • Verse, line, or canto (for religious and canonically numbered works)

Parenthetical example – Paraphrasing, no page number available

He quickly learned that pandas were not considered good pets (Chan, 2011, para. 3).

If page numbers are not available, it might be necessary to include the section title or heading name, especially with works that have been published online. If these section titles are overly lengthy, they can be abbreviated for clarity and tidiness.

Parenthetical citation – Abbreviated section title with paragraph

The sample population included both red and giant pandas (Chan, 2011, Methodology section, para. 1).

 In need of a narrative or APA parenthetical citation website? Check out the tools and resources on EasyBib.com! We make the narrative and parenthetical APA citation process easy for you!


Citing Group Authors or Corporate Authors

Groups, corporations, government agencies, associations, and other organizations can be considered the author of a source in a narrative or a parenthetical citation APA. This is commonplace with reports, scientific studies, and other works (like the Publication manual) that have been commissioned by larger entities.

If you are trying to cite a work that has no listed author, but the work appears in a corporate or agency-related periodical or website, then the corporation or agency can safely be listed as the author.

Parenthetical example – Group author:

The 2019 survey of students found that the cost of education and student loans deterred many students from pursuing another college degree (Chegg, 2019).


A Note on Abbreviations

It’s not required to abbreviate the name of a group author. However, if a well-known abbreviation exists, you may use it. Provide the abbreviation within brackets in the first in-text citation. Then, you can use that abbreviation for all subsequent entries.

Abbreviated group example – First parenthetical citation APA

The May 2011 study focused on percentages of tax money that goes to imprisonment over education funding (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [NAACP], 2011).

Abbreviated group example – Subsequent citations

The report found that over one half billion taxpayer dollars went to imprison residents “from 24 of New York City’s approximately 200 neighborhoods” (NAACP, 2011, p. 2).

Quick reminder: If you’re looking for a parenthetical citation APA website, check out the homepage of EasyBib.com. Our automatic generator makes full references and narrative /APA parenthetical citations for you!


Citing Classical, Religious, or Translated Works

For classical sources, such as ancient Greek works, it is necessary to provide not only the original publication date, but also the copyright date of the version or translation that you used for your research.

For the purpose of in-text citations, these two dates would be separated by a slash with no extra spaces:

Parenthetical citation in APA example – Classical work with translation

(Homer, ca. 800 B.C./1998).

Narrative example – Translated work

In Homer’s The Iliad (800 B.C./1998) …

With most Greek and Roman literature, the precise date of publication cannot be determined. In cases such as these, the approximate date is offered with the abbreviation “ca.”, which is short for “circa”.

Reference entry example  – Translated work

Homer. (1998). The Iliad (R. Fagles, Trans.). Penguin Classics. (Original work published ca. 800 B.C.E.)

When citing specific content from these sources, include the paragraph/line numbers that are used in classical works in the narrative or APA parenthetical citation. This information is consistent across versions/editions, and is the easiest way to locate direct quotes from classical works.

APA parenthetical example – Direct bible quotation

The Bible extols the virtues of love; “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud” (New International Version, 1973/2018, 1 Cor. 13:4).

Narrative example – Direct bible quotation

In 1 Cor. 13:4 (New International Version, 1978/2018), the Bible extols the virtues of love: “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.”

As you can see, it doesn’t matter if you’re creating a reference in the text for a book, website, journal article, or another source type in this format. All of your references in the text of your paper are formatted the same. If you’d like to learn how to create full APA citations for an APA book citation, APA journal, or APA citation website, we have the resources you need!


Citing and Formatting Block Quotes

When directly quoting information from sources in your writing, you may need to format it differently depending on how many words are used.

If a quote runs on for more than 40 words:

  • Start the direct quotation on a new line
  • Indent the text roughly half an inch from the left margin
  • If there are multiple paragraphs in the quotation, indent them an extra half inch
  • Do not use quotation marks
  • Double-space the text
  • Add the in-text parenthetical citation APA after the final sentence

Use our grammar pages to ensure your words are organized and styled appropriately. Check out interjection, conjunction, and adverb, along with many others!

Parenthetical example – Block quotations

Here is some text from the book that clearly defines early on in the novel:

He smiled understandingly-much more than understandingly. It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It faced–or seemed to face–the whole eternal world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor (Fitzgerald, 2019, pp. 12-13).

Notice in the above APA parenthetical citation, a page range is included, marked by ‘pp.’ prior to the page numbers. If your quote is found on a single page, use ‘p.’ before the page number in the parenthetical citation APA reference.

Narrative example – Block quotations

Fitzgerald (2019) clearly defines early on in the novel:

He smiled understandingly-much more than understandingly. It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It faced–or seemed to face–the whole eternal world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor (pp. 12-13).

Reference entry example

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2019). The great Gatsby. Cambridge University Press.

If you’re still confused on how to do parenthetical citations APA, learn more here. If you’re looking for a parenthetical citation APA website, check out the resources and tools on EasyBib.com!

Need another set of eyes to edit your paper? Run your paper through the EasyBib Plus proofreader, which checks each and every determiner, verb, pronoun, to make sure they’re where they’re supposed to be.

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.


Reference

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000


Published January 31, 2012. Updated April 16, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a dedicated school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.


APA Formatting Guide

Sours: https://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/apa-format/how-to-cite-a-parenthetical-citations-apa/

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