## boson

### bo·son

(bō′zŏn)*n.*

Any of a class of particles, including photons, mesons, or alpha particles, that have integral spins and do not obey the exclusion principle, so that any number of identical particles may occupy the same quantum state.

[After Satyendra Nath ** Bose**.]

**bo·son′ic*** adj.*

American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

### boson

(ˈbəʊzɒn)*n*

(Atomic Physics) any of a group of elementary particles, such as a photon or pion, that has zero or integral spin and obeys the rules of Bose-Einstein statistics. Compare fermion

[C20: named after Satyendra Nath Bose; see -on]

Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

### bo•son

(ˈboʊ sɒn)*n.*

any of a class of elementary particles not subject to the exclusion principle that have spins of zero or an integral number.

[1945–50; after S. N. *Bose* (1894–1974), Indian physicist]

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonyms**Legend:**

Switch to new thesaurus

Noun | 1. | boson - any particle that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics but not the Pauli exclusion principle; all nuclei with an even mass number are bosonsgauge boson - a particle that mediates the interaction of two elementary particles meson, mesotron - an elementary particle responsible for the forces in the atomic nucleus; a hadron with a baryon number of 0 subatomic particle, particle - a body having finite mass and internal structure but negligible dimensions |

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.

## boson

### boson:

see elementary particles**elementary particles,**

the most basic physical constituents of the universe.

**Basic Constituents of Matter**

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.

**.....**Click the link for more information.; Bose-Einstein statistics

**Bose-Einstein statistics,**

class of statistics that applies to elementary particles called bosons, which include the photon, pion, and the W and Z particles. Bosons have integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "gregarious" in the sense that an

**.....**Click the link for more information..

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

The following article is from *The Great Soviet Encyclopedia* (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

### Boson

bose particle, a particle with zero or integral spin. Bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics (hence the designation of the particle). Bosons include light quanta, or photons (spin 1); quanta of the gravitational field (if such exist), or gravi-tons (spin 2); unstable elementary particles such as mesons and boson resonances; and also compound particles made up of an even number of fermions (particles of half-integral spin)—for example, atomic nuclei with an even total number of protons and neutrons (a deuteron, a ^{4}He nucleus or alpha particle, and so on); and gas molecules. Bosons are also quasi-particles of integral (or zero) spin—for example, pho-nons in the solid state and in liquid ^{4}He and excitons in semiconductors and dielectrics.

V. P. PAVLOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

### boson

[′bō‚sän]A particle that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics; includes photons, pi mesons, and all nuclei having an even number of particles and all particles with integer spin.

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

### Higgs boson

The most elementary atomic particle discovered to date at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. With 99.9% certainty, the Higgs is said to be the particle that gives all other particles mass. It is smaller than all other particles but also heavier in atomic weight. Considered the glue of the universe, the Higgs is an invisible energy field that fills space.**The Higgs Is a Type of Boson**

Named after Satyendra Nath Bose, a boson is a particle that shares quantum states and behaves collectively; for example, a photon is a boson. The Higgs is a type of boson that was postulated by three scientists in the 1960s: Peter Higgs, Francois Englert and Tom Kibble, all of whom were present in Geneva in 2012 when the discovery was officially announced. See quantum state and particle accelerator.

The God Particle |
---|

Higgs is also called the "God Particle" after Leon Lederman's book, written two decades before it was finally observed. The book takes you through 2,500 years of physics with a sense of humor and an uncanny way of really teaching the subject. |

### quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.**Fermions**

The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

**Bosons**

Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "

**bow**-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.

Copyright © 1981-2019 by **The Computer Language Company Inc**. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.

## Boson

One of two classes of elementary particles

For other uses, see Boson (disambiguation).

In quantum mechanics, a **boson** (,^{[1]}^{[2]}) is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics (integer spin). Bosons make up one of two classes of elementary particles, the other being fermions.^{[3]} The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac^{[4]}^{[5]} to commemorate the contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose, an Indian physicist and professor of physics at University of Calcutta and at University of Dhaka^{[6]}^{[7]} in developing, with Albert Einstein, Bose–Einstein statistics, which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles.^{[8]}

Examples of bosons are fundamental particles such as photons, gluons, and W and Z bosons (the four force-carrying gauge bosons of the Standard Model), the recently discovered Higgs boson, and the hypothetical graviton of quantum gravity. Some composite particles are also bosons, such as mesons and stable nuclei of even mass number such as deuterium (with one proton and one neutron, atomic mass number = 2), helium-4, and lead-208;^{[a]} as well as some quasiparticles (e.g. Cooper pairs, plasmons, and phonons).^{[9]}^{: 130 }

An important characteristic of bosons is that there is no restriction on the number of them that occupy the same quantum state. This property is exemplified by helium-4 when it is cooled to become a superfluid.^{[10]} Unlike bosons, two identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state. Whereas the elementary particles that make up matter (i.e. leptons and quarks) are fermions, the elementary bosons are force carriers that function as the "glue" holding matter together.^{[11]} This property holds for all particles with integer spin (s = 0, 1, 2, etc.) as a consequence of the spin–statistics theorem. All known integer-spin particles are bosons. When a gas of Bose particles is cooled down to temperatures very close to absolute zero, then the kinetic energy of the particles decreases to a negligible amount, and they condense into the lowest energy level state. This state is called a Bose–Einstein condensate. This property is also the explanation for superfluidity.

### Types[edit]

Bosons may be either elementary, like photons, or composite, like mesons.

While most bosons are composite particles, in the Standard Model of Particle Physics there are five bosons which are elementary:

H^{0}

Higgs boson

γ

Photon

g

Gluons (eight different types)

Z

Neutral weak boson

W^{±}

Charged weak bosons (two types)

There may be a sixth *tensor boson* (spin=2), the graviton (G), that would be the force-carrier for gravity. It remains a hypothetical elementary particle since all attempts so far to incorporate gravitation into the Standard Model have failed. If the graviton does exist, it must be a boson, and could conceivably be a gauge boson.^{[b]}

Composite bosons, such as helium-4 atoms, are important in superfluidity and other applications of Bose–Einstein condensates.

### Properties[edit]

Bosons differ from fermions, which obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. Two or more identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state (see Pauli exclusion principle), and they are sometimes said to be the constituents of ordinary "rigid" matter. Unlike those, instances of a boson have no quantum-mechanical obstruction to occupy the same state. Bosons are often (although not necessarily) force carrier particles, including composite bosons such as mesons. Force carriers are also said to be the particles that transmit interactions, or the constituents of radiation.

The Bose–Einstein statistics imply that, when one swaps two bosons (of the same species), the wavefunction of the system is unchanged.^{[12]} The quantum fields of bosons are bosonic fields, obeying canonical commutation relations.

The properties of lasers and masers, superfluid helium-4 and Bose–Einstein condensates are all consequences of statistics of bosons. Another result is that the spectrum of a photon gas in thermal equilibrium is a Planck spectrum, one example of which is black-body radiation; another is the thermal radiation of the opaque early Universe seen today as microwave background radiation. Interactions between elementary particles are called fundamental interactions. The fundamental interactions of virtual bosons with real particles result in all forces we know.

All known elementary and composite particles are bosons or fermions, depending on their spin: Particles with half-integer spin are fermions; particles with integer spin are bosons. In the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, this is a purely empirical observation. In relativistic quantum field theory, the spin–statistics theorem shows that half-integer spin particles cannot be bosons and integer spin particles cannot be fermions.^{[13]}

In large systems, the difference between bosonic and fermionic statistics is only apparent at large densities – when their wave functions overlap. At low densities, both types of statistics are well approximated by Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, which is described by classical mechanics.

### Elementary bosons[edit]

See also: List of particles § Bosons

All observed elementary particles are either fermions or bosons. The observed elementary bosons are nearly all gauge bosons: photons, W and Z bosons and gluons. The only exception is the Higgs boson, which is a scalar boson.

Finally, many approaches to quantum gravity postulate a force carrier for gravity, the graviton, which is a boson of spin plus or minus two.

### Composite bosons[edit]

See also: List of particles § Composite particles

Composite particles (such as hadrons, nuclei, and atoms) can be bosons or fermions depending on their constituents. More precisely, because of the relation between spin and statistics, a particle containing an even number of fermions is a boson, since it has integer spin.

Examples include the following:

- Any meson, since mesons contain one quark and one antiquark.
- The nucleus of a carbon-12 atom, which contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons.
- The helium-4 atom, consisting of 2 protons, 2 neutrons and 2 electrons; Also the tritium atom, consisting of 1 proton, 2 neutrons and 1 electron.
- The nucleus of deuterium, known as a deuteron, and its anti-particle.

The number of bosons within a composite particle made up of simple particles bound with a potential has no effect on whether it is a boson or a fermion.

### Quantum states[edit]

Bose–Einstein statistics encourages identical bosons to crowd into one quantum state, but not any state is necessarily convenient for it. Aside of statistics, bosons can interact – for example, helium-4 atoms are repulsed by intermolecular force on a very close approach, and if one hypothesizes their condensation in a spatially-localized state, then gains from the statistics cannot overcome a prohibitive force potential. A spatially-delocalized state (i.e. with low |*ψ*(*x*)|) is preferable: if the number density of the condensate is about the same as in ordinary liquid or solid state, then the repulsive potential for the *N*-particle condensate in such state can be no higher than for a liquid or a crystalline lattice of the same *N* particles described without quantum statistics. Thus, Bose–Einstein statistics for a material particle is not a mechanism to bypass physical restrictions on the density of the corresponding substance, and superfluid liquid helium has a density comparable to the density of ordinary liquid matter. Spatially-delocalized states also permit for a low momentum according to the uncertainty principle, hence for low kinetic energy; this is why superfluidity and superconductivity are usually observed in low temperatures.

Photons do not interact with themselves and hence do not experience this difference in states where to crowd (see squeezed coherent state).

### See also[edit]

- Anyon – Type of particle that occurs only in two-dimensional systems
- Bose gas – State of matter of many bosons
- Parastatistics – Notion in statistical mechanics

### Notes[edit]

**^**Even-mass-number nuclides, which comprise 153/254 = ~ 60% of all stable nuclides, are bosons, i.e. they have integer spin. Almost all (148 of the 153) are even-proton, even-neutron (EE) nuclides, which necessarily have spin 0 because of pairing. The remaining 5 stable bosonic nuclides are odd-proton, odd-neutron stable nuclides (see even and odd atomic nuclei#Odd proton, odd neutron); these odd–odd bosons are:^{2}_{1}H

,^{6}_{3}Li

,^{10}_{5}B

,^{14}_{7}N

and^{180m}_{73}Ta

). All have nonzero integer spin.**^**Despite being the carrier of the gravitational force which interacts with mass, the graviton is expected to have no mass.

### References[edit]

**^**Wells, John C. (1990).*Longman pronunciation dictionary*. Harlow, England: Longman. ISBN . entry "Boson"**^**"boson".*Lexico UK Dictionary*. Oxford University Press.**^**Carroll, Sean (2007).*Guidebook*. Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The dark side of the universe. The Teaching Company. Part 2, p. 43. ISBN .**^***Notes on Dirac's lecture*Developments in Atomic Theory*at Le Palais de la Découverte, 6 December 1945*. UKNATARCHI Dirac Papers. BW83/2/257889.**^**Farmelo, Graham (25 August 2009).*The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom*. Basic Books. p. 331. ISBN .**^**Daigle, Katy (10 July 2012). "India: Enough about Higgs, let's discuss the boson". Associated Press. Retrieved 10 July 2012.**^**Bal, Hartosh Singh (19 September 2012). "The Bose in the Boson".*The New York Times blog*. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.**^**"Higgs boson: The poetry of subatomic particles".*BBC News*. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.**^**Poole, Charles P. Jr. (11 March 2004).*Encyclopedic Dictionary of Condensed Matter Physics*. Academic Press. ISBN .**^**"boson".*Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary*. Retrieved 21 March 2010.**^**Carroll, Sean. "Explain it in 60 seconds: Bosons".*Symmetry Magazine*. Fermilab/SLAC. Retrieved 15 February 2013.**^**Srednicki, Mark (2007).*Quantum Field Theory*. Cambridge University Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN .**^**Sakurai, J.J. (1994).*Modern Quantum Mechanics*(Revised ed.). Addison-Wesley. p. 362. ISBN .

## About Fermions & Bosons

Fermions

Bosons

What distiguishes "Ultra-cold atoms" from room-temperature atoms is that they are in (or near) the quantum degenerate regime. This regime is acheived when the thermal de Broglie wavelength of the atoms is comparable to the interparticle spacing -- ie, when one atom can "feel" that its neighbor is a quantum mechanical object. What happens when a gas is cooled further into the degenerate regime depends on what type of particle is being cooled.

Fermions are particles which obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which states that this type of (identical) particle must be in a state that is antisymmetric with respect to particle exchange. In other words, no two particles may occupy the same state. When Fermions get cold, they try to go to the lowest energy levels of a system but "stack up" in the way depicted at left above.

This should be contrasted with the behavior of Bosons, which condense to the lowest state at cold temperatures, as depicted above on the right. The accumulation of atoms in the ground state is called a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The Nobel prize of 2001 was given for the first observations of and experiments with a BEC in a dilute gas.

It turns out that all integer-spin particles (such as photons, mesons, and neutral atoms with an even number of neutrons) are bosons, and all half-integer spin particles (such as electrons, protons, neutrons, and all neutral atoms with an odd number of neutrons) are fermions. The relationship between spin and statistics is profound and difficult to explain simply; one finds that a self-consistant quantum field theory cannot be constructed in any other way.

Fermi statistics are responsible for many phenomena we see in nature: the structure of the periodic table, the stability of matter and of neutron stars, and the conduction bands in solids. Bose statistics explain lasers (since photons are bosons), superfluidity, and superconductivity.

For more information about Bose and Fermi statistics, follow the links below.

#### Links and Articles:

## Atom bosonic

## On the Bosonic Atoms

### Abstract

We investigate the ground state properties of atoms, in which substitute fermions—electrons by bosons, namely, π^{−}-mesons. We perform some calculations in the frame of modified Hartree–Fock (HF) equation. The modification takes into account symmetry, instead of antisymmetry of the pair identical bosons wavefunction. The modified HF approach thus enhances (doubles) the effect of self-action for the boson case. Therefore, we accordingly modify the HF equations by eliminating the self-action terms “by hand.” The contribution of meson–meson and meson–nucleon non-Coulomb interaction is inessential at least for atoms with low and intermediate nuclear charge, which is our main subject. We found that the binding energy of pion negative ions *A*_{π}^{-}, pion atoms *A*_{π}, and the number of extra bound pions Δ*N*_{π} increases with the nuclear charge *Z*. In particular, for Xe Δ*N*_{π} = 4. As an example of a simple process with a pion atom, we consider photoionization that differs essentially from that for electron atoms. Namely, it is not monotonic decreasing from the threshold but has instead a prominent maximum above threshold. We study also elastic scattering of pions by pion atoms.

### References

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M. Ya. Amusia and L. V. Chernysheva,

*Computation of Atomic Processes*(Inst. Phys. Publ., Bristol, Philadelphia, 1997).Book Google Scholar

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*Bose–Einstein Condensation*(Clarendon, Oxford, 2002).MATH Google Scholar

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M. Ya. Amusia, L. V. Chernysheva, and V. G. Yarzhemsky,

*Handbook of Theoretical Atomic Physics*(Springer, Berlin, 2012).Book Google Scholar

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M. Ya. Amusia, L. V. Chernysheva, and S. K. Semenov,

*ATOM-M. Algorithms and Programs for Investigating Atomic and Molecular Processes*(Nauka, St. Petersburg, 2016) [in Russian].Google Scholar

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### Author information

### Affiliations

The Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel

M. Ya. Amusia

Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia

M. Ya. Amusia & L. V. Chernysheva

### Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Ya. Amusia.

### Additional information

The article is published in the original.

### About this article

### Cite this article

Amusia, M.Y., Chernysheva, L.V. On the Bosonic Atoms. *Jetp Lett.***107, **91–95 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0021364018020017

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