Digestive system diagram quizlet

Digestive system diagram quizlet DEFAULT

Heart Diagram Quizlet

Heart Diagram Quizlet

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The expected gains

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Accessory Organs: Glands and Organs That Facilitate the Process of Digestion

Accessory organs of digestion include the Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas and Salivary glands

Food that is chewed in the oral cavity then swallowed ends up in the stomach where it is further digested so its nutrients can be absorbed in the small intestine. The salivary glands, liver and gall bladder, and the pancreas aid the processes of ingestion, digestion, and absorption. These accessory organs of digestion play key roles in the digestive process. Each of these organs either secretes or stores substances that pass through ducts into the alimentary canal.

1. Saliva Moistens Food and Begins the Chemical Digestion Process

Location of different saliva producing glands in the mouth

Six salivary glands, located around the oral cavity, secrete saliva. This substance moves out of the glands into the oral cavity through ducts. Saliva is 99% water, but also contains enzymes and proteins that lubricate the oral cavity and begin chemical digestion of food. There are three pairs of salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) and two ducts (Stensen’s and salivary ducts) on either side of the oral cavity.

2. The Liver Secretes Bile to Emulsify Fats in the Small Intestine

Bile secretion from the Gall bladder

The liver is one of the largest organs in the body and it is continuously producing bile. This yellowish-brown fluid aids chemical digestion by emulsifying fats in the duodenum. Bile flows out of the liver into the right and left hepatic ducts, into the common hepatic ducts, and toward the small intestine to help with digestion and the absorption of fats.

3. The Gall Bladder Stores Bile

5B-Gall-bladder

If bile is not immediately needed for digestion, it flows up the cystic duct to the gall bladder. The gall bladder is a green, pear-shaped sac about 10 cm or 4 in. long that stores and concentrates excess bile secreted by the liver. Bile is released by the gall bladder as needed into the small intestine.

4. Pancreatic Juice Breaks Down Protein, Fats, and Carbohydrates

Main pancreatic duct in the cross section of the pancreas

The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, a mix of digestive enzymes, water, buffers (bicarbonates), and electrolytes produced by acinar and epithelial cells. Pancreatic juice drains through the main pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung) into the common bile duct and then into the small intestine. There it buffers stomach acids and breaks down protein, fats, and carbohydrates.

Download Digestive System Lab Manual

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The human digestive system is a series of organs that converts food into essential nutrients that are absorbed into the body. mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus . PLAY. Food's Journey Through the Digestive System Stop 1: The Mouth The mouth is the beginning of the digestive system , and, in fact, digestion starts here before you even take the first bite of a meal. Gravity. Let learn the different parts of the human digestive system. tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas. teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas. Mouth: Human mouth consists of two parts. Today's Rank Stores the liver's digestive juices until … The Pharynx. Diagram Of Digestive System. The leftover parts of food which cannot be broken down, digested, or absorbed are excreted as bowel movements (stool). Digestive Glands. Human Anatomy Sem2 Unit 1. another name for alimentary canal. 3. Because of this, the frequency of eating is reduced. Add to New Playlist. Biology II Module of the MCAT Self Prep eCourse: Lesson 5: Digestive System Part II: Diagram D: Components of Pancreatic Secretions . Outline the development of the embryonic digestive system. Terms in this set (5) Bicarbonate. Quiz: Digestive System . Removes water from the waste that remains after nutrient absorption, Delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion, The propulsion of food through the gastrointestinal tract, Finger-like projections that cause the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, Cause the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, Releases 2 hormones: Secretin and Cholecystokinin, Teeth, Salivary Glands, Pancreas, Liver, Gallbladder, Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Large Intestine, Small Intestine, Anus. Reabsorbs water from chyme. The digestive organs also move waste material out of the body. The digestive system is an endoderm-derived structure that begins developing about the fourth week of embryogenesis. 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A temporary storage organ will discuss about the main organs and their functions blood

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Diagram of Digestive System

Accessory Organs

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The salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are not part of the digestive tract, but they have a role in digestive activities and are considered accessory organs.

Salivary Glands

Three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) and numerous smaller ones secrete saliva into the oral cavity, where it is mixed with food during mastication. Saliva contains water, mucus, and enzymeamylase. Functions of saliva include the following:

  • It has a cleansing action on the teeth.
  • It moistens and lubricates food during mastication and swallowing.
  • It dissolves certain molecules so that food can be tasted.
  • It begins the chemical digestion of starches through the action of amylase, which breaks down polysaccharides into disaccharides.

Liver

The liver is located primarily in the right hypochondriac and epigastric regions of the abdomen, just beneath the diaphragm. It is the largest gland in the body. On the surface, the liver is divided into two major lobes and two smaller lobes. The functional units of the liver are lobules with sinusoids that carry blood from the periphery to the central vein of the lobule.

The liver receives blood from two sources. Freshly oxygenated blood is brought to the liver by the common hepatic artery, a branch of the celiac trunk from the abdominal aorta. Blood that is rich in nutrients from the digestive tract is carried to the liver by the hepatic portal vein.

The liver has a wide variety of functions and many of these are vital to life. Hepatocytes perform most of the functions attributed to the liver, but the phagocytic Kupffer cells that line the sinusoids are responsible for cleansing the blood.

Liver functions include the following:

  • secretion
  • synthesis of bile salts
  • synthesis of plasma protein
  • storage
  • detoxification
  • excretion
  • carbohyrate metabolism
  • lipid metabolism
  • protein metabolism
  • filtering

Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac that is attached to the visceral surface of the liver by the cystic duct. The principal function of the gallbladder is to serve as a storage reservoir for bile. Bile is a yellowish-green fluid produced by liver cells. The main components of bile are water, bile salts, bile pigments, and cholesterol.

Bile salts act as emulsifying agents in the digestion and absorption of fats. Cholesterol and bile pigments from the breakdown of hemoglobin are excreted from the body in the bile.

Pancreas

The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions. The endocrine portion consists of the scattered islets of Langerhans, which secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood. The exocrine portion is the major part of the gland. It consists of pancreatic acinar cells that secrete digestive enzymes into tiny ducts interwoven between the cells. Pancreatic enzymes include anylase, trypsin, peptidase, and lipase. Pancreatic secretions are controlled by the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin.

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System diagram quizlet digestive

Heart Diagram Quizlet

Heart Diagram Quizlet

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6.1 Skill: Produce an annotated diagram of the digestive system

BIO - Human Biology I - Textbook

Chapter 16

Digestive System Processes and Regulation

OpenStax, Digestive System Processes and Regulation. OpenStax CNX. Jun 28, http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected] © Jun 28, OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution License license.

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Discuss six fundamental activities of the digestive system, giving an example of each
  • Compare and contrast the neural and hormonal controls involved in digestion

 

The digestive system uses mechanical and chemical activities to break food down into absorbable substances during its journey through the digestive system. Table 1 provides an overview of the basic functions of the digestive organs.

Table 1: Functions of the Digestive Organs

OrganMajor functionsOther functions
Mouth
  • Ingests food
  • Chews and mixes food
  • Begins chemical breakdown of carbohydrates
  • Moves food into the pharynx
  • Begins breakdown of lipids via lingual lipase
  • Moistens and dissolves food, allowing you to taste it
  • Cleans and lubricates the teeth and oral cavity
  • Has some antimicrobial activity
Pharynx
  • Propels food from the oral cavity to the esophagus
  • Lubricates food and passageways
Esophagus
  • Propels food to the stomach
  • Lubricates food and passageways
Stomach
  • Mixes and churns food with gastric juices to form chyme
  • Begins chemical breakdown of proteins
  • Releases food into the duodenum as chyme
  • Absorbs some fat-soluble substances (for example, alcohol, aspirin)
  • Possesses antimicrobial functions
  • Stimulates protein-digesting enzymes
  • Secretes intrinsic factor required for vitamin B12 absorption in small intestine
Small intestine
  • Mixes chyme with digestive juices
  • Propels food at a rate slow enough for digestion and absorption
  • Absorbs breakdown products of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, along with vitamins, minerals, and water
  • Performs physical digestion via segmentation
  • Provides optimal medium for enzymatic activity
Accessory organs
  • Liver: produces bile salts, which emulsify lipids, aiding their digestion and absorption
  • Gallbladder: stores, concentrates, and releases bile
  • Pancreas: produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonate
  • Bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juices help neutralize acidic chyme and provide optimal environment for enzymatic activity
Large intestine
  • Further breaks down food residues
  • Absorbs most residual water, electrolytes, and vitamins produced by enteric bacteria
  • Propels feces toward rectum
  • Eliminates feces
  • Food residue is concentrated and temporarily stored prior to defecation
  • Mucus eases passage of feces through colon

Watch the video linked to below for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body.


Digestive Processes

The processes of digestion include six activities: ingestion, propulsion, mechanical or physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation.

The first of these processes, ingestion, refers to the entry of food into the alimentary canal through the mouth. There, the food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down the carbohydrates in the food plus some lipid digestion via lingual lipase. Chewing increases the surface area of the food and allows an appropriately sized bolus to be produced.

Food leaves the mouth when the tongue and pharyngeal muscles propel it into the esophagus. This act of swallowing, the last voluntary act until defecation, is an example of propulsion, which refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract. It includes both the voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis. Peristalsis consists of sequential, alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of alimentary wall smooth muscles, which act to propel food along (Figure 1). These waves also play a role in mixing food with digestive juices. Peristalsis is so powerful that foods and liquids you swallow enter your stomach even if you are standing on your head.

This image shows the peristaltic movement of food. In the left image, the food bolus is towards the top of the esophagus and arrows pointing downward show the direction of movement of the peristaltic wave. In the center image, the food bolus and the wave movement are closer to the center of the esophagus and in the right image, the bolus and the wave are close to the bottom end of the esophagus.

Digestion includes both mechanical and chemical processes. Mechanical digestion is a purely physical process that does not change the chemical nature of the food. Instead, it makes the food smaller to increase both surface area and mobility. It includes mastication, or chewing, as well as tongue movements that help break food into smaller bits and mix food with saliva. Although there may be a tendency to think that mechanical digestion is limited to the first steps of the digestive process, it occurs after the food leaves the mouth, as well. The mechanical churning of food in the stomach serves to further break it apart and expose more of its surface area to digestive juices, creating an acidic “soup” called chyme. Segmentation, which occurs mainly in the small intestine, consists of localized contractions of circular muscle of the muscularis layer of the alimentary canal. These contractions isolate small sections of the intestine, moving their contents back and forth while continuously subdividing, breaking up, and mixing the contents. By moving food back and forth in the intestinal lumen, segmentation mixes food with digestive juices and facilitates absorption.

In chemical digestion, starting in the mouth, digestive secretions break down complex food molecules into their chemical building blocks (for example, proteins into separate amino acids). These secretions vary in composition, but typically contain water, various enzymes, acids, and salts. The process is completed in the small intestine.

Food that has been broken down is of no value to the body unless it enters the bloodstream and its nutrients are put to work. This occurs through the process of absorption, which takes place primarily within the small intestine. There, most nutrients are absorbed from the lumen of the alimentary canal into the bloodstream through the epithelial cells that make up the mucosa. Lipids are absorbed into lacteals and are transported via the lymphatic vessels to the bloodstream (the subclavian veins near the heart). The details of these processes will be discussed later.

In defecation, the final step in digestion, undigested materials are removed from the body as feces.

Aging and the…


Digestive System: From Appetite Suppression to Constipation

Age-related changes in the digestive system begin in the mouth and can affect virtually every aspect of the digestive system. Taste buds become less sensitive, so food isn’t as appetizing as it once was. A slice of pizza is a challenge, not a treat, when you have lost teeth, your gums are diseased, and your salivary glands aren’t producing enough saliva. Swallowing can be difficult, and ingested food moves slowly through the alimentary canal because of reduced strength and tone of muscular tissue. Neurosensory feedback is also dampened, slowing the transmission of messages that stimulate the release of enzymes and hormones.

Pathologies that affect the digestive organs—such as hiatal hernia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease—can occur at greater frequencies as you age. Problems in the small intestine may include duodenal ulcers, maldigestion, and malabsorption. Problems in the large intestine include hemorrhoids, diverticular disease, and constipation. Conditions that affect the function of accessory organs—and their abilities to deliver pancreatic enzymes and bile to the small intestine—include jaundice, acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis, and gallstones.

 

In some cases, a single organ is in charge of a digestive process. For example, ingestion occurs only in the mouth and defecation only in the anus. However, most digestive processes involve the interaction of several organs and occur gradually as food moves through the alimentary canal (Figure 2).

This image shows the different processes involved in digestion. The image shows how food travels from the mouth through the major organs. Associated textboxes list the different processes such as propulsion, chemical and mechanical digestion and absorption near the organs where they take place.

Some chemical digestion occurs in the mouth. Some absorption can occur in the mouth and stomach, for example, alcohol and aspirin.

Regulatory Mechanisms

Neural and endocrine regulatory mechanisms work to maintain the optimal conditions in the lumen needed for digestion and absorption. These regulatory mechanisms, which stimulate digestive activity through mechanical and chemical activity, are controlled both extrinsically and intrinsically.

Neural Controls

The walls of the alimentary canal contain a variety of sensors that help regulate digestive functions. These include mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and osmoreceptors, which are capable of detecting mechanical, chemical, and osmotic stimuli, respectively. For example, these receptors can sense when the presence of food has caused the stomach to expand, whether food particles have been sufficiently broken down, how much liquid is present, and the type of nutrients in the food (lipids, carbohydrates, and/or proteins). Stimulation of these receptors provokes an appropriate reflex that furthers the process of digestion. This may entail sending a message that activates the glands that secrete digestive juices into the lumen, or it may mean the stimulation of muscles within the alimentary canal, thereby activating peristalsis and segmentation that move food along the intestinal tract.

The walls of the entire alimentary canal are embedded with nerve plexuses that interact with the central nervous system and other nerve plexuses—either within the same digestive organ or in different ones. These interactions prompt several types of reflexes. Extrinsic nerve plexuses orchestrate long reflexes, which involve the central and autonomic nervous systems and work in response to stimuli from outside the digestive system. Short reflexes, on the other hand, are orchestrated by intrinsic nerve plexuses within the alimentary canal wall. These two plexuses and their connections were introduced earlier as the enteric nervous system. Short reflexes regulate activities in one area of the digestive tract and may coordinate local peristaltic movements and stimulate digestive secretions. For example, the sight, smell, and taste of food initiate long reflexes that begin with a sensory neuron delivering a signal to the medulla oblongata. The response to the signal is to stimulate cells in the stomach to begin secreting digestive juices in preparation for incoming food. In contrast, food that distends the stomach initiates short reflexes that cause cells in the stomach wall to increase their secretion of digestive juices.

Hormonal Controls

A variety of hormones are involved in the digestive process. The main digestive hormone of the stomach is gastrin, which is secreted in response to the presence of food. Gastrin stimulates the secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach mucosa. Other GI hormones are produced and act upon the gut and its accessory organs. Hormones produced by the duodenum include secretin, which stimulates a watery secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas; cholecystokinin (CCK), which stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver and release of bile from the gallbladder; and gastric inhibitory peptide, which inhibits gastric secretion and slows gastric emptying and motility. These GI hormones are secreted by specialized epithelial cells, called endocrinocytes, located in the mucosal epithelium of the stomach and small intestine. These hormones then enter the bloodstream, through which they can reach their target organs.

Chapter Review

The digestive system ingests and digests food, absorbs released nutrients, and excretes food components that are indigestible. The six activities involved in this process are ingestion, motility, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation. These processes are regulated by neural and hormonal mechanisms.

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A Look Inside Your Digestive System

The digestive system consists of several organs that function together to break down the foods you eat into molecules your body can use for energy and nutrients. The digestive tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus. So-called "accessory" organs include the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder; food doesn't move through these organs, but they secrete hormones and chemicals that are essential to digestion. Here's what to know about your digestive system organs and functions.

The Mouth

Digestion begins in your mouth. Your teeth grind the food you eat and mix it with saliva to form a kind of ball, known as a bolus.

During the mixing, an enzyme called salivary amylase starts breaking down carbohydrates. Once the food is soft and relatively flexible, the tongue pushes it to the back of your mouth and into the esophagus.

The Esophagus

Your esophagus is a flattened muscular tube that connects your mouth to your stomach. As food is swallowed, your esophagus expands. It takes food about three seconds to pass through your esophagus, depending on the texture and consistency.

Common problems of the esophagus include heartburn, acid reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which are caused by acid flowing up from the stomach and irritating the lower part of the esophagus.

Anatomy, Structure, and Function of the Esophagus

The Stomach

Your stomach is a J-shaped muscular pouch, which receives food from your esophagus and sends it to your small intestine. Inside your stomach, food is mixed with enzymes and acid until it becomes a liquid, called chyme.

The stomach is the main site for protein digestion and uses powerful enzymes, known as pepsins, as well as hydrochloric acid, to digest foods like meats, milk, and cheese.

The Small Intestine

The small intestine is an approximately foot-long muscular tube, which is divided into three distinct parts: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Each of the three parts plays a major role in digestion and absorption.

Absorption is a crucial part of the digestive process that brings the molecules from the digested food into the blood and, ultimately, the cells.

Problems with your small or large intestine can affect the way your body absorbs and digests food, leading to malnutrition. People who are missing parts of their intestines or have limited intestinal mobility may require total parenteral nutrition (TPN), a type of nutrition that bypasses the digestive system.

What Does the Small Intestine Do?

The Large Intestine

The last part of the digestive tract, the large intestine, is a muscular tube that is about 6 feet long. It's divided into the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. Together, these segments complete any nutrient absorption and process the waste into feces.

Problems with your large intestine can be caused by diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis as well as celiac disease. If parts of these organs become seriously diseased, they may require surgical removal. When this happens, an ostomy may be necessary to aid digestion and elimination.

The Function of the Large Intestine

The Anus

The anus is the last organ of the digestive system. It is a 2-inch long canal consisting of pelvic floor muscles and two anal sphincters (internal and external) which allow you to hold in feces until you are able to get to a bathroom to release the contents into the toilet.

The Pancreas

The pancreas is one of the three "accessory" digestion-related organs. Your pancreas assists your small intestine by secreting pancreatic juice, a liquid filled with enzymes and sodium bicarbonate that is able to stop the digestion process of pepsin. It also secretes insulin, which helps your body regulate your blood sugar.

The Function of the Pancreas

The Liver

Your liver has many functions. First, it produces bile, which the small intestine uses to help digest the fats in food.

It also metabolizes proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; helps regulate blood sugar levels; stores glycogen for quick energy; makes fibrinogen, which clots blood; makes vitamin A; and recycles worn-out red blood cells.

Diseases of the liver, such as hepatitis, can have major complications that affect other parts of the body as the liver is involved in so many essential functions, like digestion.

The Functions of the Liver

The Gallbladder

Tucked under the liver, your gallbladder is a storage container for bile, a yellow-green fluid made up of salts, cholesterol, and lecithin. Your small intestine uses bile to digest fats.

Most people never think about their gallbladder until a problem with gallstones or gallbladder disease, such as cholecystitis, develops. If you have a gallbladder-related disease, you may experience jaundice.

This happens when the bile cannot leave the gallbladder. Instead, the bile enters the bloodstream, which can cause your skin, eyes, and nails to appear yellow.

The Anatomy of the Gallbladder

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the accessory organs in the digestive system?

The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are considered accessory organs. Food does not move through them, as it does in the gastrointestinal tract, but these organs release hormones and chemicals that are essential to digestion.

How are digestive system organs affected by type 1 diabetes?

In type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not produce insulin, causing your blood sugar to rise. Another digestive complication of type 1 diabetes is gastroparesis, in which it takes longer than usual for the stomach to empty its contents into the small intestine.

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Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

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