Jp morgan careers

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At J.P. Morgan, we are committed to helping businesses and markets grow and develop in more than 100 countries. Over the last 200 years, we have evolved to meet the complex financial needs of some of the world’s largest companies as well as many of the smaller businesses driving industry change globally and locally.

Our people work hard to do the right thing for our clients, shareholders and the firm every day. Joining us means you’ll learn from our experts in a supportive and collaborative team environment where you will be supported to make an immediate impact from the start. We want to see your creativity, communications skills and drive.

While your academic achievements are important, we’re also looking for your individuality and passion as demonstrated by extra curricular activities. We want to help you fulfil your potential as you build your career here. Internship and graduate positions are available firmwide, so we encourage you to learn as much as possible about our business areas and roles. We also offer pre-internship programs such as Spring Week that give you insights into our industry and programs.

We often hire directly from these opportunities – giving you early exposure to our firm and how we do business We also have opportunities in Asia with the added benefit of smaller, focused teams meaning that our junior analysts work more closely with senior managers. We’ve been active and successful in the Asia Pacific region for over 140 years:

  • Working across 15 countries in the region with unique business practices

  • Collaborating in a diverse team that reflects the breadth of the region, with talented colleagues from USA and Europe too

Don’t forget to cite Bright Network on your J. P. Morgan application form, they’re keen to hear from our members


JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services holding company headquartered in New York City. JPMorgan Chase is incorporated in Delaware. As of June 30, 2021, JPMorgan Chase is the largest bank in the United States and the fifth-largest bank in the world in terms of total assets, with total assets of US$3.684 trillion.

As a "Bulge Bracket" bank, it is a major provider of various investment banking and financial services. As of 2021 it is the largest lender to the fossil fuel industry in the world. It is one of America's Big Four banks, along with Bank of America, Citigroup, and Wells Fargo. JPMorgan Chase is considered to be a universal bank and a custodian bank. The J.P. Morgan brand is used by the investment banking, asset management, private banking, private wealth management, and treasury services divisions. Fiduciary activity within private banking and private wealth management is done under the aegis of JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.—the actual trustee. The Chase brand is used for credit card services in the United States and Canada, the bank's retail banking activities in the United States, and commercial banking. Both the retail and commercial bank and the bank's corporate headquarters are currently located at 383 Madison Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, since the prior headquarters building directly across the street, 270 Park Avenue, was demolished and a larger replacement headquarters is being built on the same site. It is considered a systemically important bank by the Financial Stability Board.

Highest paying job titles at JPMorgan Chase & Co. include Software Engineering Manager, Software Engineer, and Lead Java Software Engineer

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J. P. Morgan

American financier, banker and art collector

This article is about the American financier. For his son, see J. P. Morgan Jr. For the modern company, see JPMorgan Chase. For the historical banking institution, see J.P. Morgan & Co. For other people of the same name, see J. P. Morgan (disambiguation) and John Morgan (disambiguation).

J. P. Morgan


John Pierpont Morgan

(1837-04-17)April 17, 1837

Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.

DiedMarch 31, 1913(1913-03-31) (aged 75)

Rome, Kingdom of Italy

Resting placeCedar Hill Cemetery
Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.
Alma materUniversity of Göttingen
  • Financier
  • Banker
  • Accountant
  • Art collector
Known forFounding J.P. Morgan & Co. Organizing the Morgan "money trust" which owned controlling interests in U.S. Steel, General Electric, International Mercantile Marine, International Harvester, Pullman Palace Car Company, Western Union, Aetna and 21 railroads
Board member ofNorthern Pacific Railroad, New Haven Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, Pullman Palace Car Company, Western Union, New York Central Railroad, Albany & Susquehanna Railroad, Aetna, General Electric and U.S. Steel

Amelia Sturges

(m. 1861; died 1862)​

Frances Louise Tracy

(m. 1865)​
Children5, including J. P. Morgan Jr.
Anne Morgan
Parent(s)Junius Spencer Morgan
Juliet Pierpont
CAB 1918 Morgan John Pierpont signature.png

John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913)[1] was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance on Wall Street throughout the Gilded Age. As the head of the banking firm that ultimately became known as J.P. Morgan and Co., he was the driving force behind the wave of industrial consolidation in the United States spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Over the course of his career on Wall Street, J.P. Morgan spearheaded the formation of several prominent multinational corporations including U.S. Steel, International Harvester and General Electric which subsequently fell under his supervision. He and his partners also held controlling interests in numerous other American businesses including Aetna, Western Union, Pullman Car Company and 21 railroads.[2] Due to the extent of his dominance over U.S. finance, Morgan exercised enormous influence over the nation's policies and the market forces underlying its economy. During the Panic of 1907, he organized a coalition of financiers that saved the American monetary system from collapse.

As the Progressive Era's leading financier, J.P. Morgan's dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform the shape of the American economy.[1][3]Adrian Wooldridge characterized Morgan as America's "greatest banker".[4] Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont Morgan Jr. Biographer Ron Chernow estimated his fortune at $80 million (equivalent to $1.2 billion in 2019), a net worth which allegedly prompted John D. Rockefeller to say: "and to think, he wasn't even a rich man."[5]

Childhood and education[edit]

Morgan was born and raised in Hartford, Connecticut, the son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890) and Juliet Pierpont (1816–1884) of the influential Morgan family.[6][7] Pierpont,[8] as he preferred to be known, had a varied education due in part to his father's plans. In the fall of 1848, he transferred to the Hartford Public School, then to the Episcopal Academy in Cheshire, Connecticut (now Cheshire Academy), where he boarded with the principal. In September 1851, he passed the entrance exam for The English High School of Boston, which specialized in mathematics for careers in commerce. In April 1852, an illness struck Morgan which became more common as his life progressed: Rheumatic fever left him in such pain that he could not walk, and Junius sent him to the Azores to recover.[9]

He convalesced there for almost a year, then returned to Boston to resume his studies. After graduation, his father sent him to Bellerive, a school in the Swiss village of La Tour-de-Peilz, where he gained fluency in French. His father then sent him to the University of Göttingen to improve his German. He attained passable fluency within six months, and a degree in art history; then traveled back to London via Wiesbaden, his formal education complete.[10]


Early years and life[edit]

Morgan went into banking in 1857 at the London branch of merchant banking firm Peabody, Morgan & Co., a partnership between his father and George Peabody founded three years earlier. In 1858, he moved to New York City to join the banking house of Duncan, Sherman & Company, the American representatives of George Peabody and Company. During the American Civil War, in an incident known as the Hall Carbine Affair, Morgan financed the purchase of five thousand rifles from an army arsenal at $3.50 each, which were then resold to a field general for $22 each.[11][12][13][14] Morgan had avoided serving during the war by paying a substitute $300 to take his place.[11] From 1860 to 1864, as J. Pierpont Morgan & Company, he acted as agent in New York for his father's firm, renamed "J.S. Morgan & Co." upon Peabody's retirement in 1864. From 1864 to 1872, he was a member of the firm of Dabney, Morgan, and Company. In 1871, he partnered with the Drexels of Philadelphia to form the New York firm of Drexel, Morgan & Company. At that time, Anthony J. Drexel became Pierpont's mentor at the request of Junius Morgan.[15]

J.P. Morgan & Company[edit]

Main article: J.P. Morgan & Co.

After the death of Anthony Drexel, the firm was rechristened J. P. Morgan & Company in 1895, retaining close ties with Drexel & Company of Philadelphia; Morgan, Harjes & Company of Paris; and J.S. Morgan & Company (after 1910 Morgan, Grenfell & Company) of London. By 1900 it was one of the world's most powerful banking houses, focused primarily on reorganizations and consolidations.[citation needed]

Morgan had many partners over the years, such as George W. Perkins, but always remained firmly in charge.[16] He often took over troubled business and reorganized their structures and management to return them to profitability, a process that became known as "Morganization".[17] His reputation as a banker and financier drew interest from investors to the businesses that he took over.[18]


Main article: History of rail transport in the United States § Expansion and consolidation (1878–1916)

Bond of the New Jersey Junction Railroad Company, issued 30. June 1886, reverse side with signatures of John Pierpont Morgan and Harris C. Fahnestock as trustees

In his ascent to power, Morgan focused on railroads, America's largest business enterprises.[19] He wrested control of the Albany and Susquehanna Railroad from Jay Gould and Jim Fisk in 1869; led the syndicate that broke the government-financing privileges of Jay Cooke; and developed and financed a railroad empire by reorganization and consolidation in all parts of the United States. He raised large sums in Europe; but rather than participating solely as a financier, he helped the railroads reorganize and achieve greater efficiency. He fought speculators interested only in profit and built a vision of an integrated transportation system. He successfully marketed a large part of William H. Vanderbilt's New York Central holdings in 1883. In 1885 he reorganized the New York, West Shore & Buffalo Railroad, leasing it to the New York Central.[20] In 1886 he reorganized the Philadelphia & Reading, and in 1888 the Chesapeake & Ohio. After Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, Morgan set up conferences in 1889 and 1890 that brought together railroad presidents to help the industry follow the new laws and write agreements for the maintenance of "public, reasonable, uniform and stable rates". The first of their kind, the conferences created a community of interest among competing lines, paving the way for the great consolidations of the early 20th century. In addition, J P Morgan & Co, and the banking houses which it succeeded, reorganized a large number of railroads between 1869 and 1899. Morgan also financed street railways, especially in New York City.[21]

A major political debacle came in 1904. The Northern Pacific Railway went bankrupt in the great depression of 1893. The bankruptcy wiped out the railroad's bondholders, leaving it free of debt, and a complex financial battle for its control ensued. In 1901, a compromise was reached between Morgan, New York financier E. H. Harriman and St. Paul, MN railroad builder James J. Hill. To reduce expensive competition in the Midwest, they created the Northern Securities Company to consolidate the operations of three of the region's most important railways: the Northern Pacific Railway, the Great Northern Railway, and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad. The consolidators ran into unexpected opposition, however, from President Theodore Roosevelt. An energetic trustbuster, Roosevelt considered the giant merger bad for consumers and a violation of the (until then) seldom-enforced Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. In 1902, Roosevelt ordered his Justice Department to sue to break it up. In 1904 the Supreme Court dissolved the Northern Security company and the railroads had to go their separate, competitive ways. Morgan did not lose money on the project, but his all-powerful political reputation suffered.[22]

Treasury gold[edit]

The Federal Treasury was nearly out of gold in 1895, at the depths of the Panic of 1893. Morgan had put forward a plan for the federal government to buy gold from his and European banks but it was declined in favor of a plan to sell bonds directly to the general public to overcome the crisis. Morgan, sure there was not enough time to implement such a plan, demanded and eventually obtained a meeting with Grover Cleveland where he claimed the government could default that day if they didn't do something. Morgan came up with a plan to use an old civil war statute that allowed Morgan and the Rothschilds to sell gold directly to the U.S. Treasury, 3.5 million ounces,[23] to restore the treasury surplus, in exchange for a 30-year bond issue.[24] The episode saved the Treasury but hurt Cleveland's standing with the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party, and became an issue in the election of 1896 when banks came under a withering attack from William Jennings Bryan. Morgan and Wall Street bankers donated heavily to Republican William McKinley, who was elected in 1896 and re-elected in 1900.[25]


J. P. Morgan in his earlier years

After his father's death in 1890, Morgan took control of J. S. Morgan & Co. (renamed Morgan, Grenfell & Company in 1910). He began talks with Charles M. Schwab, president of Carnegie Co., and businessman Andrew Carnegie in 1900, with the goal of buying Carnegie's steel business and merging it with several other steel, coal, mining and shipping firms. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company, he merged it in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses (including William Edenbirn's Consolidated Steel and Wire Company), forming the United States Steel Corporation. In 1901, U.S. Steel was the world's first billion-dollar company, with an authorized capitalization of $1.4 billion, much larger than any other industrial firm and comparable in size to the largest railroads.

U.S. Steel's goals were to achieve greater economies of scale, reduce transportation and resource costs, expand product lines, and improve distribution[26] to allow the United States to compete globally with the United Kingdom and Germany. Schwab and others claimed the company's size would enable it to be more aggressive and effective in pursuing distant international markets ("globalization").[26] U.S. Steel was regarded as a monopoly by critics, as it sought to dominate not only steel but the construction of bridges, ships, railroad cars and rails, wire, nails, and many other products. With U.S. Steel, Morgan captured two-thirds of the steel market, and Schwab was confident that the company would soon hold a 75% market share.[26] However, after 1901, its market share dropped; and in 1903, Schwab resigned to form Bethlehem Steel, which became the second largest U.S. steel producer.

Labor policy was a contentious issue. U.S. Steel was non-union, and experienced steel producers, led by Schwab, used aggressive tactics to identify and root out pro-union "troublemakers". The lawyers and bankers who had organized the merger—notably Morgan and CEO Elbert Gary—were more concerned with long-range profits, stability, good public relations, and avoiding trouble. The bankers' views generally prevailed, and the result was a "paternalistic" labor policy. (U.S. Steel was eventually unionized in the late 1930s.)[27]

Panic of 1907[edit]

Morgan's role in the economy was denounced as overpowering in this political cartoon

The Panic of 1907 was a financial crisis that almost crippled the American economy. Major New York banks were on the verge of bankruptcy and there was no mechanism to rescue them, until Morgan stepped in to help resolve the crisis.[28][29] Treasury Secretary George B. Cortelyou earmarked $35 million of federal money to deposit in New York banks.[30] Morgan then met with the nation's leading financiers in his New York mansion, where he forced them to devise a plan to meet the crisis. James Stillman, president of the National City Bank, also played a central role. Morgan organized a team of bank and trust executives which redirected money between banks, secured further international lines of credit, and bought up the plummeting stocks of healthy corporations.[28]

A delicate political issue arose regarding the brokerage firm of Moore and Schley, which was deeply involved in a speculative pool in the stock of the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company. Moore and Schley had pledged over $6 million of the Tennessee Coal and Iron (TCI) stock for loans among the Wall Street banks. The banks had called the loans, and the firm could not pay. If Moore and Schley should fail, a hundred more failures would follow and then all Wall Street might go to pieces. Morgan decided they had to save Moore and Schley. TCI was one of the chief competitors of U.S. Steel and it owned valuable iron and coal deposits. Morgan controlled U.S. Steel and he decided it had to buy the TCI stock from Moore and Schley. Elbert Gary, head of U.S. Steel, agreed, but was concerned there would be antitrust implications that could cause grave trouble for U.S. Steel, which was already dominant in the steel industry. Morgan sent Gary to see President Theodore Roosevelt, who promised legal immunity for the deal. U.S. Steel thereupon paid $30 million for the TCI stock and Moore and Schley was saved. The announcement had an immediate effect; by November 7, 1907, the panic was over. The crisis underscored the need for a powerful oversight mechanism.[28]

Vowing never to let it happen again, and realizing that in a future crisis there was unlikely to be another Morgan, in 1913 banking and political leaders, led by Senator Nelson Aldrich, devised a plan that resulted in the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913.[31]

Banking's critics[edit]

"I Like a Little Competition"—J. P. Morganby Art Young. Cartoon relating to the answer Morgan gave when asked whether he disliked competition at the Pujo Committee.[32]

While conservatives in the Progressive Era hailed Morgan for his civic responsibility, his strengthening of the national economy, and his devotion to the arts and religion, the left wing viewed him as one of the central figures in the system it rejected.[33] Morgan redefined conservatism in terms of financial prowess coupled with strong commitments to religion and high culture.[34]

Enemies of banking attacked Morgan for the terms of his loan of gold to the federal government in the 1895 crisis and, together with writer Upton Sinclair, they attacked him for the financial resolution of the Panic of 1907. They also attempted to attribute to him the financial ills of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. In December 1912, Morgan testified before the Pujo Committee, a subcommittee of the House Banking and Currency committee. The committee ultimately concluded that a small number of financial leaders was exercising considerable control over many industries. The partners of J.P. Morgan & Co. and directors of First National and National City Bank controlled aggregate resources of $22.245 billion, which Louis Brandeis, later a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, compared to the value of all the property in the twenty-two states west of the Mississippi River.[35]

Unsuccessful ventures[edit]

Morgan did not always invest well, as several failures demonstrated.

Nikola Tesla[edit]

In 1900, the inventor Nikola Tesla convinced Morgan he could build a trans-Atlantic wireless communication system (eventually sited at Wardenclyffe) that would outperform the short range radio wave-based wireless telegraph system then being demonstrated by Guglielmo Marconi. Morgan agreed to give Tesla $150,000 (equivalent to $4,666,200 in 2020) to build the system in return for a 51% control of the patents. Almost as soon as the contract was signed Tesla decided to scale up the facility to include his ideas of terrestrial wireless power transmission to make what he thought was a more competitive system.[36] Morgan considered Tesla's changes (and requests for the additional amounts of money to build it) a breach of contract and refused to fund the changes. With no additional investment capital available, the project at Wardenclyffe was abandoned in 1906, and never became operational.[36][37]

London Underground[edit]

Morgan suffered a rare business defeat in 1902 when he attempted to build and operate a line on the London Underground. Transit magnate Charles Tyson Yerkes thwarted Morgan's effort to obtain parliamentary authority to build the Piccadilly, City and North East London Railway, a subway line that would have competed with "tube" lines controlled by Yerkes.[38] Morgan called Yerkes' coup "the greatest rascality and conspiracy I ever heard of".[39]

International Mercantile Marine[edit]

In 1902, J.P. Morgan & Co. financed the formation of International Mercantile Marine Company (IMMC), an Atlantic shipping company which absorbed several major American and British lines in an attempt to monopolize the shipping trade. IMMC was a holding company that controlled subsidiary corporations that had their own operating subsidiaries. Morgan hoped to dominate transatlantic shipping through interlocking directorates and contractual arrangements with the railroads, but that proved impossible because of the unscheduled nature of sea transport, American antitrust legislation, and an agreement with the British government. One of IMMC's subsidiaries was the White Star Line, which owned the RMS Titanic. The ship's famous sinking in 1912, the year before Morgan's death, was a financial disaster for IMMC, which was forced to apply for bankruptcy protection in 1915. Analysis of financial records shows that IMMC was over-leveraged and suffered from inadequate cash flow causing it to default on bond interest payments. Saved by World War I, IMMC eventually re-emerged as the United States Lines, which went bankrupt in 1986.[40][41]

Morgan corporations[edit]

From 1890 to 1913, 42 major corporations were organized or their securities were underwritten, in whole or part, by J.P. Morgan and Company.[42]

Manufacturing & construction industry[edit]


Later years[edit]

J. P. Morgan, photographed in 1902

After the death of his father in 1890, Morgan gained control of J. S. Morgan & Co (renamed Morgan, Grenfell & Company in 1910). Morgan began negotiations with Charles M. Schwab, president of Carnegie Co., and businessman Andrew Carnegie in 1900 with the intention of buying Carnegie's business and several other steel and iron businesses to consolidate them to create the United States Steel Corporation.[26] Carnegie agreed to sell the business to Morgan for $480 million.[26][43] The deal was closed without lawyers and without a written contract. News of the industrial consolidation arrived to newspapers in mid-January 1901. U.S. Steel was founded later that year with an authorized capitalization of $1.4 billion, the first billion-dollar company in the world.[44]

Morgan was a member of the Union Club in New York City. When his friend, Erie Railroad president John King, was black-balled, Morgan resigned and organized the Metropolitan Club of New York.[45] He donated the land on 5th Avenue and 60th Street at a cost of $125,000, and commanded Stanford White to " me a club fit for gentlemen, forget the expense..."[citation needed] He invited King in as a charter member and served as club president from 1891 to 1900.[46]

Personal life[edit]

Marriages and children[edit]

In 1861, Morgan married Amelia Sturges, called Mimi (1835–1862), a daughter of Jonathan Sturges. She died the following year. He married Frances Louisa Tracy, known as Fanny (1842–1924), on May 31, 1865. They had four children:


Self-conscious about his rosacea, Morgan hated being photographed without permission

Morgan often had a tremendous physical effect on people; one man said that a visit from Morgan left him feeling "as if a gale had blown through the house."[5] Morgan was physically large with massive shoulders, piercing eyes, and a purple nose. He was known to dislike publicity and hated being photographed without his permission; as a result of his self-consciousness of his rosacea, all of his professional portraits were retouched.[48] His deformed nose was due to a disease called rhinophyma, which can result from rosacea. As the deformity worsens, pits, nodules, fissures, lobulations, and pedunculation contort the nose. This condition inspired the crude taunt "Johnny Morgan's nasal organ has a purple hue."[49] Surgeons could have shaved away the rhinophymous growth of sebaceous tissue during Morgan's lifetime, but as a child he suffered from infantile seizures, and Morgan's son-in-law, Herbert L. Satterlee, has speculated that he did not seek surgery for his nose because he feared the seizures would return.[50] His social and professional self-confidence were too well established to be undermined by this affliction. It appeared as if he dared people to meet him squarely and not shrink from the sight, asserting the force of his character over the ugliness of his face.[51]

Morgan smoked dozens of cigars per day and favored large Havana cigars dubbed Hercules' Clubs by observers.[52]


Morgan was a lifelong member of the Episcopal Church, and by 1890 was one of its most influential leaders.[53] He was a founding member of the Church Club of New York, an Episcopal private member's club in Manhattan.[54] In 1910, the General Convention of the Episcopal Church established a commission, proposed by Bishop Charles Brent, to implement a world conference of churches to address their differences in their “faith and order.” Morgan was so impressed by the proposal for such a conference that he contributed $100,000 to finance the commission's work.[55]


Early view (c. 1855) of 229, 225 and 219 Madison Avenue before the street was paved

His house at 219 Madison Avenue was originally built in 1853 by John Jay Phelps and purchased by Morgan in 1882.[56] It became the first electrically lit private residence in New York. His interest in the new technology was a result of his financing Thomas Alva Edison's Edison Electric Illuminating Company in 1878.[57] It was there that a reception of 1,000 people was held for the marriage of Juliet Morgan and William Pierson Hamilton on April 12, 1894, where they were given a favorite clock of Morgan's. Morgan also owned East Island in Glen Cove, New York, where he had a large summer house.


The original steam yacht Corsair

An avid yachtsman, Morgan owned several large yachts, the first being the Corsair, built by William Cramp & Sons for Charles J. Osborn (1837-1885) and launched on May 26, 1880. Charles J. Osborn was Jay Gould's private banker. Morgan bought the yacht in 1882.[58] The well-known quote, "If you have to ask the price, you can't afford it" is commonly attributed to Morgan in response to a question about the cost of maintaining a yacht, although the story is unconfirmed.[59] A similarly unconfirmed legend attributes the quote to his son, J. P. Morgan Jr., in connection with the launching of the son's yacht Corsair IV at Bath Iron Works in 1930.

Morgan was scheduled to travel on the ill-fated maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic, but canceled at the last minute, choosing to remain at a resort in Aix-les-Bains, France.[60] The White Star Line, which operated Titanic, was part of Morgan's International Mercantile Marine Company, and Morgan was to have his own private suite and promenade deck on the ship. In response to the sinking of Titanic, Morgan purportedly said, "Monetary losses amount to nothing in life. It is the loss of life that counts. It is that frightful death."[61]


Morgan was a notable collector of books, pictures, paintings, clocks and other art objects, many loaned or given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art (of which he was president and was a major force in its establishment), and many housed in his London house and in his private library on 36th Street, near Madison Avenue in New York City.

For a number of years the British artist and art critic Roger Fry worked for the Museum, and in effect for Morgan, as a collector.[62]

His son, J. P. Morgan Jr., made the Pierpont Morgan Library a public institution in 1924 as a memorial to his father, and kept Belle da Costa Greene, his father's private librarian, as its first director.[63]


Morgan was a benefactor of the Morgan Library and Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the British Museum, Groton School, Harvard University (especially its medical school), Trinity College, the Lying-in Hospital of the City of New York, and the New York trade schools.

Gem collector[edit]

By the turn of the century, Morgan had become one of America's most important collectors of gems and had assembled the most important gem collection in the U.S. as well as of American gemstones (over 1,000 pieces). Tiffany & Co. assembled his first collection under their Chief Gemologist, George Frederick Kunz. The collection was exhibited at the World's Fair in Paris in 1889. The exhibit won two golden awards and drew the attention of important scholars, lapidaries, and the general public.[64]

George Frederick Kunz continued to build a second, even finer, collection which was exhibited in Paris in 1900. These collections have been donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York where they were known as the Morgan-Tiffany and the Morgan-Bement collections.[65] In 1911 Kunz named a newly found gem after his best customer morganite.


Morgan was a patron to photographer Edward S. Curtis, offering Curtis $75,000 in 1906, to create a series on the American Indians.[66] Curtis eventually published a 20-volume work entitled The North American Indian.[67] Curtis also produced a motion picture, In the Land of the Head Hunters (1914), which was restored in 1974 and re-released as In the Land of the War Canoes. Curtis was also famous for a 1911 magic lantern slide show The Indian Picture Opera which used his photos and original musical compositions by composer Henry F. Gilbert.[68]


Morgan died while traveling abroad on March 31, 1913, just shy of his 76th birthday. He died in his sleep at the Grand Hotel Plaza in Rome, Italy. His body was brought back to America aboard the SS France, a French Line passenger ship.[69] Flags on Wall Street flew at half-staff, and in an honor usually reserved for heads of state, the stock market closed for two hours when his body passed through New York City.[70] His body was brought to lie in his home and adjacent library the first night of arrival in New York City. His remains were interred in the Cedar Hill Cemetery in his birthplace of Hartford, Connecticut. His son, John Pierpont "Jack" Morgan Jr., inherited the banking business.[71] He bequeathed his mansion and large book collections to the Morgan Library & Museum in New York.

His estate was worth $68.3 million ($1.39 billion in today's dollars based on CPI, or $25.2 billion based on share of GDP), of which about $30 million represented his share in the New York and Philadelphia banks. The value of his art collection was estimated at $50 million.[72]


His son, J. P. Morgan Jr., took over the business at his father's death, but was never as influential. As required by the 1933 Glass–Steagall Act, the "House of Morgan" became three entities: J.P. Morgan & Co., which later became Morgan Guaranty Trust; Morgan Stanley, an investment house formed by his grandson Henry Sturgis Morgan; and Morgan Grenfell in London, an overseas securities house.

J.P. Morgan walking alongside his son in the last known photograph of the two together (ca. 1913)

The gemstone morganite was named in his honor.[73]

The Cragston Dependencies, associated with his estate, Cragston (at Highlands, New York), was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.[74]

Popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ab"J.P. Morgan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  2. ^Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (2014). The Roosevelts: An Intimate History. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 78. ISBN .
  3. ^Kenton, Will. "Morganization". Investopedia. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  4. ^Adrian Wooldridge (September 15, 2016). "The alphabet of success". The Economist. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  5. ^ ab"John Pierpont Morgan and the American Corporation". Biography of America. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  6. ^Witzel, Morgan (2003). Fifty Key Figures in Management. Routledge. p. 207. ISBN . Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  7. ^J.P. Morgan's Way. Pearson Education. 2010. p. 2. ISBN . Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  8. ^"Pierpont Morgan: Banker". The Morgan Library & Museum. March 12, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  9. ^Vincent P. Carosso; Rose C. Carosso (January 1, 1987). The Morgans: Private International Bankers, 1854-1913. Harvard University Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN .
  10. ^"JP Morgan biography – One of the most influential bankers in history". March 31, 1913. Archived from the original on October 16, 2005. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  11. ^ abZinn, Howard (August 21, 2001). A People's History of the United States. p. 255. ISBN .
  12. ^Wasson, R. Gordon (1943). The Hall Carbine Affair: a study in contemporary folklore. Pandick Press.
  13. ^Josephson, Matthew (1995) [1934]. The Robber Barons. Harcourt, Brace & Co. pp. 61ff. ISBN .
  14. ^Morris, Charles (2006). The Tycoons. New York: Holt Paperbacks. p. 337. ISBN .
  15. ^Rottenberg, Dan (2006). The Man Who Made Wall Street: Anthony J. Drexel and the Rise of Modern Finance. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 98. ISBN . Retrieved September 21, 2015.
  16. ^Garraty, (1960).
  17. ^Timmons, Heather (November 18, 2002). "J.P. Morgan: Pierpont would not approve". BusinessWeek.
  18. ^"Morganization: How Bankrupt Railroads were Reorganized". Archived from the original on March 14, 2006. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  19. ^Jean Strouse, Morgan: American Financier (1999) pp 223-62.
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  21. ^Vincent P. Carosso, The Morgans: Private International Bankers, 1854-1913 (1987) pp 219-69, 352-96.
  22. ^Carosso, The Morgans: Private International Bankers, 1854-1913 (1987) pp 478-79, 529-30; Strouse, pp 418-33, 515.
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Further reading[edit]


  • Auchincloss, Louis. J.P. Morgan: The Financier as Collector. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (1990) ISBN 0-8109-3610-0
  • Baker, Ray Stannard (October 1901). "J. Pierpont Morgan". McClure's Magazine. Vol. 17 no. 6. pp. 507–518. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  • Brands, H.W.Masters of Enterprise: Giants of American Business from John Jacob Astor and J. P. Morgan to Bill Gates and Oprah Winfrey (1999), pp. 64–79
  • Bryman, Jeremy. J. P. Morgan: Banker to a Growing Nation. Morgan Reynolds Publishing (2001) ISBN 1-883846-60-9, for middle schools
  • Carosso, Vincent P. The Morgans: Private International Bankers, 1854–1913. Harvard U. Press, 1987. 888 pp. ISBN 978-0-674-58729-8
  • Chernow, Ron. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance, (2001) ISBN 0-8021-3829-2
  • Morris, Charles R. The Tycoons: How Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J. P. Morgan Invented the American Supereconomy (2005) ISBN 978-0-8050-8134-3
  • Strouse, Jean. Morgan: American Financier. (1999). 796 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Wheeler, George, Pierpont Morgan and Friends: the Anatomy of a Myth, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1973. ISBN 0136761488

Specialized studies[edit]

  • Brandeis, Louis D.Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It. Ed. Melvin I. Urofsky. (1995). ISBN 0-312-10314-X
  • Carosso, Vincent P. Investment Banking in America: A History Harvard University Press (1970)
  • De Long, Bradford. "Did JP Morgan's Men Add Value?: An Economist's Perspective on Financial Capitalism," in Peter Temin, ed., Inside the Business Enterprise: Historical Perspectives on the Use of Information (1991) pp. 205–36; shows firms with a Morgan partner on their board had higher stock prices (relative to book value) than their competitors
  • Forbes, John Douglas. J. P. Morgan Jr. 1867–1943 (1981). 262 pp. biography of his son
  • Fraser, Steve. Every Man a Speculator: A History of Wall Street in American Life HarperCollins (2005)
  • Garraty, John A. Right-Hand Man: The Life of George W. Perkins. (1960) ISBN 978-0-313-20186-8; Perkins was a top aide 1900–1910
  • Garraty, John A. "The United States Steel Corporation Versus Labor: The Early Years," Labor History 1960 1(1): 3–38
  • Geisst; Charles R. Wall Street: A History from Its Beginnings to the Fall of Enron. Oxford University Press. 2004.
  • Giedeman, Daniel C. "J. P. Morgan, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and Industrial Finance-Constraints in the Early Twentieth Century", Essays in Economic and Business History, 2004 22: 111–126
  • Hannah, Leslie. "J. P. Morgan in London and New York before 1914," Business History Review 85 (Spring 2011) 113–50
  • Keys, C.M. (January 1908). "The Builders I: The House of Morgan". The World's Work. Vol. 15 no. 2. pp. 9779–9704. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  • Moody, John. The Masters of Capital: A Chronicle of Wall Street (1921)
  • Rottenberg, Dan. The Man Who Made Wall Street. University of Pennsylvania Press.

External links[edit]

Career Experiences from Around the World - Intern Stories - J.P. Morgan

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JPMorgan Chase's culture is shifting when it comes to inclusivity, hiring practices and acceptance of people who think differently. It's Autism Inclusion Month at the firm, and we're taking a look at the critical and important contributions of people who are neurodiverse.

With us today is the Global Head of Autism at Work, Anthony Pacilio, and JPMorgan Chase's software and performance engineer Jesse Collins. Thank you both for being here today.


Thank you. Appreciate it.


Thank you for having us.


Anthony, let's start with you. Why is a program like Autism at Work so critical? And how has the program influenced productivity and inclusivity at the firm?


Yeah, great question. So when we started this program, it was out of business necessity. We were looking for a different type of talent. And at that time, we just didn't have enough of the talent in the IT space. So what happened was we understood that folks on the spectrum were knocking it out of the park in other companies and corporations. And so we decided to bring that here to JPMorgan Chase.

We've gone from four folks in the program in 2015 to over 225 today, in nine countries, in 40 different job roles. Some of the job roles that we have, folks on the spectrum are outperforming 90% to 140% of their peers and colleagues. So that speaks volume to the breadth of talent that we're bringing in.


Absolutely. And Jesse, you were diagnosed with autism at age 25. And you made the complete career shift from social work to the work you're doing today at JPMorgan Chase. How did a program like Autism at Work help make that career change?


Yeah, Christina, I was diagnosed with autism at age 25. Growing up, I struggled with social cues and understanding facial expressions. And it became more apparent as I got older that my brain just simply assessed information and situations differently than others.

While my wife and I were dating, we had a conversation one night about the possibility of me being on the autism spectrum. And she encouraged me further to talk to my doctor, which ultimately led to my diagnosis. My diagnosis simply gave us more language and tools to help us navigate our lives together.

And I'm happy to share that we've been married now for almost three years and expecting a daughter, Zofia Rose, in May. Through our conversations after my diagnosis, we found the Autism at Work program. The program gave me access to the training and guidance I needed to shift careers and, most importantly, provided me with the necessary support and encouragement.

Too often, being different is seen as something bad or that should be hidden. But that couldn't be more wrong. Being different is a good thing. And the Autism at Work program has helped myself at J.P. Morgan recognize that neurodiversity is a true asset and something that should be celebrated.


That's such an important message. And by the way, congratulations to you and your wife and growing family. That's so exciting.


Thank you.


Anthony, you've mentioned that people who are part of the program can bring their full selves to work. How have you seen the corporate culture change because of the program?


Yeah. I mean, listen, 80% of the folks who are on the spectrum are unemployed or underemployed. So this is giving them the opportunity to come in, bring their whole selves to work, as you said, but kind of take the mask off that they might've had to utilize their entire life.

The empathy has increased. And I think the social awareness, obviously, has increased. And I think when you bring somebody in who's on the spectrum or thinks differently or has a cognitive difference, I think when you bring those folks on your team, it kind of sets you apart because now you're looking at things in a totally different light. And then people get comfortable.

And one of the misconceptions is folks on the spectrum are not social. I can tell you from firsthand experience — Jesse's a prime example of that — that is not the case. We have people leading team meetings and scrum meetings and doing different things in operations areas.

Managers are also learning different techniques and ways that they're able to communicate with their teams. It's because they're learning with somebody who's on the spectrum that there's different ways to do that.

And if we take an example of somebody who’s getting performance feedback and it's not sinking in, we try a different technique to do that. Whether it's bringing in an advocate to help out or just trying a different methodology via Skype or chat or whatever that may be. So it's actually increasing how we talk to colleagues who are neurotypical as well.

The culture shift that we have now at JPMorgan Chase because of the program is absolutely unbelievable. We have many other companies and corporations asking us how we did the program. And we said we started small, and now we're scaling it to where it is one of the leading ones in the world.


And, Jesse, back over to you. What advice would you give other companies who are looking to hire people who are neurodiverse? And what can people do to embrace the neurodiverse culture even more?


Yeah. If you're looking to increase your neurodiversity, I think it's important to set up the programs that go beyond recruitment. It's important to set up training programs similar to how Autism at Work has established them for JPMorgan Chase. That informs colleagues and managers on how they can reframe their practices to be more inclusive. And alleviates the burden off of the individual to have to disclose and educate others on their diagnosis, which can be really difficult and anxiety-provoking.

Additionally, it's important to address the physical work environment too. When we were in the office and we had office spaces, like alternative office seating and lower lighting and designated quiet zones, those things can be really helpful to somebody who has sensory sensitivities like myself.

In general, creating a work environment that celebrates differences in thought, hosting conversations about neurodiversity — not only during Autism Inclusion Month but throughout the year — and being more conscious of practices and languages that may be unintentionally exclusive are ways that we can all build a more diverse and inclusive work environment.


Well, thank you Jesse, thank you Anthony, so much for sharing your story and a little bit more about this critical program. Appreciate your time.


Thank you.


Thank you.


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