2 meter band range

2 meter band range DEFAULT

You&#;ve just purchased your first handheld transceiver and have been chatting with both old and new friends around town on the 2 Meter band. There are many different frequencies to choose from, so how do you find an appropriate frequency to use?

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FCC Rules
The first thing we need to know are the frequencies that the FCC has authorized for our particular license class. For the HF bands, the frequency privileges depend greatly on the license class of the operator. Above 50 MHz, the frequency allocations are the same for Technician licenses and higher. In particular, the 2m band extends from MHz to MHz. The FCC Rules say that any mode (FM, AM, SSB, CW, etc.) can be used on the band from to MHz. The FCC has restricted to MHz to CW operation only.

Band Plans
Knowing the FCC frequency authorizations is a good start but we need to check a bit further. Amateur radio operators use a variety of modulation techniques to carry out communications. Often, these modulation techniques are incompatible since a signal of one type can&#;t be received by a radio set to another modulation type. For example, an SSB signal can&#;t be received on an FM receiver (and vice versa). We need to use our authorized frequencies wisely by sharing the band with other users and avoiding unnecessary interference. Thus, it makes sense to have a band plan that divides the band up into segments for each type of operation.

2 Meter Band Plan
As shown in the table, the ARRL 2 Meter amateur band plan supports a wide variety of radio operation. Large portions of the band are dedicated to FM operation, consistent with the popularity of the FM mode. There are portions of the band designated for repeater outputs(which is the frequency that we tune to receive the repeater) and repeater inputs (which is the frequency we transmit on to use the repeater). Notice that these segments are positioned kHz apart consistent with the standard 2M repeater offset. There are also frequencies designated for FM simplex.

On the low end of the band, we see segments for some of the more exotic modes. At the very bottom is the CW portion, which includes Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) operation. EME operators communicate by bouncing their signals off the moon.

2 Meter Band Plan Adapted from the ARRL web site
CW
Single-sideband (SSB Calling Frequency = )
Propagation Beacons
OSCAR (satellite) APRS Frequency = MHz
FM Repeater Inputs
Packet Radio
FM Repeater Outputs
Misc. and experimental modes
OSCAR (satellite)
FM Repeater Inputs
FM Simplex (National Simplex Frequency = MHz)
FM Repeater Outputs
FM Simplex
FM Repeater Inputs

Further up the band, we see segments for SSB operation and beacon operation. SSB is the preferred voice mode for so-called “weak signal” operators. The mode is more efficient than FM when signals are weak, so it is the way to go when you are trying to push the limits of 2M DX. Beacons are transmitters that are always on, transmitting a short CW message as a propagation indicator for distant stations. We often think of 2 Meters as a local coverage band but when conditions are right, contacts can be made with stations over a thousand miles away. Of course, conditions are not always right so having a beacon on the other end of the desired communication path lets you know how propagation is in that direction.

Radio amateurs also use 2 meters for OSCAR (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio) operation, sending signals to a satellite (uplink) or receiving signals from the satellite (downlink). The OSCAR segments don&#;t specify a particular modulation type since CW, SSB and FM are all used for OSCAR operation. Because of their elevation above the earth, satellites can hear signals from all over the US simultaneously, so they are very susceptible to interference.

Most of this non-FM operation can be easily interfered with by signals from other users. EME signals, for example, are usually quite small since the signal has to make the round trip from the earth to the moon and back. If a local FM operator fires up in the EME portion of the band, an EME signal that can&#;t be heard by an FM receiver can be wiped out by the FM signal. Similarly, an operator chatting across town on 2M could interfere with a satellite hundreds of miles away and not know it. This is particularly a problem with FM receivers, which won&#;t even notice low-level CW and SSB signals.

FM Operating
The most common VHF radios are basic FM mobile or handheld transceivers. These radios usually tune the entire 2M band from MHz to MHz in 5 kHz steps. The band plan indicates the proper range of frequencies for FM operation but there is more to the story. FM operation is “channelized”, meaning that specific 2M FM frequencies are identified by the band plan. The use of channels is especially important for repeaters since they don&#;t easily move around in frequency and are coordinated to minimize interference. The idea is to have all stations use frequencies that are spaced just far enough apart to accommodate the signal without interfering with the adjacent channels. You might think that the spacing between channels would be 5 kHz, which is the tuning step of most FM radios. This doesn&#;t work because a typical FM signal occupies a bandwidth that is about 16 kHz wide.

The channel spacing needs to be at least as wide as the bandwidth of the signal, which allows room for each signal without interfering with the adjacent channel. In Colorado, the channel spacing is 15 kHz, which is a bit tight for our 16 kHz-wide signal. In other parts of the country, a kHz spacing has been adopted to provide for more separation between channels. Obviously, you get more channels on the band with 15 kHz spacing than with 20 kHz, but you have to put up with more adjacent channel interference.

When using a repeater, you just need to dial in the published repeater frequency and set the transmit offset, usually either + kHz or &#; kHz. In some parts of North America, non-standard repeater offsets may be used, which will be indicated in the repeater directory. For repeaters that require a CTCSS tone for repeater access, you will have to set the proper tone frequency on transmit.

Choosing an appropriate simplex frequency can be a little tricky, since it depends on whether your region uses the kHz or kHz channel spacing. Across all of North America, the National Simplex Frequency (also referred to as the calling frequency) is MHz. In areas that use kHz channels, the adjacent channels are , , MHz, etc. moving upward. Below the calling frequency are , , MHz and on. In areas that use 20 kHz channels, the frequencies are , , MHz moving up and , , MHz moving down.

There is usually another group of FM simplex frequencies in the MHz. The typical layout of simplex channels is the table below. However, it is important to note that your local band plan may be different than this.

2M FM Simplex Frequencies (typical usage, check your local band plan)
15 kHz Channels, , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , ,
20 kHz Channels, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Band Plan
While the ARRL band plan sets the guidelines for band use across the US, VHF band plans are really defined on a statewide or regional basis. This means it is best to find the specific band plan for your region. This may be a challenge to find the right information, but try searching the web for “2-meter band plan” and your state. A good source is your local frequency coordination body, which is listed on the ARRL web site.

For the Colorado VHF/UHF band plans, see the Colorado Council of Amateur Radio Clubs web site.

Summary
The fine points of the band plan can be a bit confusing. However, a few simple guidelines can help, especially if you are operating only FM.

  • FM voice simplex and repeater operation should only occur in the designated band segments for your area. Stay out of the weak signal and satellite sub-bands.
  • When operating through a repeater, make sure you are tuned to the published repeater frequency with the proper transmit offset.
  • When operating simplex, use a simplex frequency designated by your local band plan.

We&#;ve only covered the 2 Meter band in this article. If you are operating on other bands, be sure to check the appropriate band plan before transmitting. In a future article, we&#;ll take a look at the 70 cm band.

Bob, KØNR

This entry was posted in a. The Basics on by Bob Witte. Sours: https://hamradioschool.com/what-frequency-do-i-use-onmeters/

Other VHF/UHF/Microwave wiki pages: 13 centimeters, 9 centimeters, 6 centimeters, 3 centimeters  centimeters and Bands above 24GHz.
2 meters is probably the most heavily-used amateur band in the United States. Most newly-licensed Technician-class operators get their start in amateur radio on 2 meter FM.

Equipment

Equipment for operation on two meters is plentiful; many well-known manufacturers produce new base, mobile and hand-held transceivers intended specifically for the 2-meter ham radio band. In some cases, additional bands (most often 70 centimeters but occasionally also additional VHF bands) will be supported.

Much of the early equipment deployed by radio amateurs on 2 meter FM was surplus, built originally for commercial land-mobile use on bands elsewhere in the MHz spectrum and converted to the MHz amateur band. Users of adjacent spectrum range from marine radiotelephone and public safety to dispatch radios used by taxis and service vehicles.

As commercial two-way radio frequencies became more crowded, the spacing between channels was reduced, leading to many existing radios becoming available as surplus. The oldest of this equipment was crystal-controlled and provided use of a limited number of FM voice frequencies; modern equipment is frequency-synthesized and often also capable of receiving out-of-band services such as weather and marine radio.

Commercial land-mobile base station equipment has also been adapted readily to construct repeaters, although factory-built repeaters designed specifically for amateur use are now commercially available. This ready availability of a wide selection of equipment at a reasonable cost has made 2 meters the most commonly-used amateur band for mobile voice communication.

Modulation

The most common application of 2-meter radio is in FM voice transmission, either operated directly between stations or via automated repeaters. Individual FM channels are normally spaced at 15kHz or 20kHz intervals. Repeater inputs below MHz are typically set kHz below the output frequency; above MHz this pattern is reversed.

The 2-meter band is a popular choice for digital packet transmission, with MHz (North America) and MHz (Europe) commonly used for APRS operation.

Propagation

Signals in this band travel primarily line-of-sight or slightly further. It is not uncommon for a powerful, well-situated repeater to be accessible to mobile stations up to fifty miles distant. During unusual atmospheric conditions (such as temperature inversion) the VHF signals&#; range may be significantly but temporarily increased.

Australian band plan

Vk4yeh vk 2m bandplan.jpg

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The KØNR Radio Site

Written for amateur radio operation in Colorado
Bob Witte, KØNR

Note: For radio operating outside of Colorado, please refer to my article on HamRadioSchool.com

You&#;ve just purchased your first 2-meter ( to MHz) FM transceiver and have been chatting with both old and new friends around town on the 2m band. You and your buddies decide to find an out of the way frequency to hang out on. After tuning around, you find a nice, quiet frequency that no one seems to using and start operating there. Nothing to worry about, right?

Not so fast, there are a few more things to consider when selecting a frequency on the 2m band. Let&#;s take a look at the key issues.

FCC Rules

The first thing we need to know are the frequencies that the FCC has authorized for our particular license class. For the HF bands, the frequency privileges depend greatly on the license class of the operator. Above 50 MHz, the frequency allocations are the same for Technician licenses and higher. In particular, the 2M band extends from MHz to MHz. The FCC Rules say that any mode (FM, AM, SSB, CW, etc.) can be used on the band from to MHz. The FCC has restricted to MHz to CW operation only.

Band Plans

Knowing the FCC frequency authorizations is a good start but we need to check a bit further. Amateur radio operators use a variety of modulation techniques to carry out communications. Often, these modulation techniques are incompatible since a signal of one type can&#;t be received by a radio set to another modulation type. For example, an SSB signal can&#;t be received on an FM receiver (and vice versa). We need to use our authorized frequencies wisely by sharing the band with other users and avoiding unnecessary interference. Thus, it makes sense to have a band plan that divides the band up into segments for each type of operation.

2m Band Plan

As shown in the table, the 2m amateur band plan supports a wide variety of radio operation. Large portions of the band are dedicated to FM operation, consistent with the popularity of the FM mode. There are portions of the band designated for repeater outputs (which is the frequency that we tune to receive the repeater) and repeater inputs (which is the frequency we transmit on to use the repeater). Notice that these segments are positioned kHz apart consistent with the standard 2m repeater offset. There are also frequencies designated for FM simplex.

On the low end of the band, we see segments for some of the more exotic modes. At the very bottom is the CW portion, which includes Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) operation. EME operators communicate by bouncing their signals off the moon.

2m Band Plan
As approved by the ARRL VHF-UHF Advisory Committee,
simplified by KØNR to reflect usage in Colorado.

The Colorado Council of Amateur Radio Clubs (CCARC) publishes the official 2 Meter Frequency Use Plan for the 2 meter band in Colorado.

CW
Single-sideband (SSB Calling Frequency = )
Propagation Beacons
OSCAR (satellite)
APRS Frequency = MHz
FM Repeater Inputs
Packet Radio
FM Repeater Outputs
Misc. and experimental modes
OSCAR (satellite)
FM Repeater Inputs
FM Simplex
(National Simplex Calling Frequency = MHz)
FM Repeater Outputs
FM Simplex
FM Repeater Inputs
Note: The FM channel spacing in Colorado is 15 kHz (repeaters and simplex).

Further up the band, we see segments for SSB operation and beacon operation. SSB is the preferred voice mode for so-called &#;weak signal&#; operators. The mode is more efficient than FM when signals are weak, so it is the way to go when you are trying to push the limits of 2m DX. Beacons are transmitters that are always on, transmitting a short CW message as a propagation indicator for distant stations. We often think of 2 meters as a local coverage band but when conditions are right, contacts can be made with stations over a thousand miles away. Of course, conditions are not always right so having a beacon on the other end of the desired communication path lets you know how propagation is in that direction.

Radio amateurs also use 2 meters for OSCAR satellite operation, sending signals to a satellite (uplink) or receiving signals from the satellite (downlink). The OSCAR segments don&#;t specify a particular modulation type since CW, SSB and FM are all used for OSCAR operation. Because of their elevation above the earth, satellites can hear signals from all over the US simultaneously, so they are very susceptible to interference.

Most of this non-FM operation can be easily interfered with by signals from other users. EME signals, for example, are usually quite small since the signal has to make the round trip from the earth to the moon and back. If a local FM operator fires up in the EME portion of the band, an EME signal that can&#;t be heard by an FM receiver can be wiped out by the FM signal. Similarly, an operator chatting across town on 2m could interfere with a satellite hundreds of miles away and not know it. This is particularly a problem with FM receivers, which won&#;t even notice low level CW and SSB signals.

FM Operating

The most common 2m rigs are basic FM mobile or handheld transceivers. These radios usually tune the entire 2m band from MHz to MHz in 5 kHz steps. The band plan indicates the proper range of frequencies for FM operation but there is more to the story. FM operation is &#;channelized&#;, meaning that specific 2m FM frequencies are identified by the band plan. The use of channels is especially important for repeaters, since they don&#;t easily move around in frequency and are coordinated to minimize interference. The idea is to have all stations use frequencies that are spaced just far enough apart to accommodate the signal without interfering with the adjacent channels.

You might think that the spacing between channels would be 5 kHz, which is the tuning step of most FM radios. This doesn&#;t work because an FM signal occupies a bandwidth that more than 5 kHz wide. Even though we talk about a signal being on a specific frequency, the signal actually spills out on either side of the frequency by about 8 kHz. This means that a typical FM signal is about 16 kHz wide.

(You may recall that amateur 2m FM uses ±5 kHz frequency deviation. So doesn&#;t this mean the bandwidth is 10 kHz? No, it doesn&#;t work quite that way and the signal is actually wider than 10 kHz. I might be able to show the math behind this but it makes my head hurt. Perhaps in some future article.)

The channel spacing needs to be at least as wide as the bandwidth of the signal, which allows room for each signal without interfering with the adjacent channel. In Colorado, the channel spacing is 15 kHz, which is a bit tight for our 16 kHz-wide signal. In other parts of the country, a 20 kHz spacing has been adopted to provide for more separation between channels. Obviously, you get more channels on the band with 15 kHz spacing than with 20 kHz, but you have to put up with more adjacent channel problems.

When using a repeater, you just need to dial in the published repeater frequency and set the transmit offset, either + kHz or &#; kHz. Most modern 2m radios automatically take care of setting the proper offset (based on the band plan). If you need to set the offset manually, the rule is very simple. If a repeater&#;s output frequency is in the MHz range, it uses a + kHz offset. Otherwise, it requires a &#; kHz offset. For repeaters that require a CTCSS tone for repeater access, you will have to set the proper tone frequency on transmit.

For simplex operation, the standard simplex frequencies listed in the table below should be used. These simplex frequencies are grouped in the MHz and MHz range as listed in the table below. The National Simplex Calling Frequency (also referred to as the calling frequency) is MHz.

 

2m FM Simplex Frequencies
Colorado Band Plan

 

MHz Range

, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
 

MHz Range

, , , , , , ,, , , , ,

 

The FCC View on Band Plans

Sometimes I hear radio amateurs say, &#;Band plans are voluntary so I don&#;t need to pay any attention to them. I can do whatever I want as long as I don&#;t break the FCC rules.&#; Unfortunately, such an attitude does not promote efficient use and sharing of the amateur bands. Imagine the chaos on the ham bands if everyone took this approach. It also may be a violation of FCC rules.

On Oct 18, , in a ruling concerning a repeater operator&#;s failure to conform to the prevailing band plan, FCC Special Counsel for Amateur Radio Enforcement, Riley Hollingsworth commented on the issue. He said &#;Band plans minimize the necessity for Commission intervention in Amateur operations and the use of Commission resources to resolve amateur interference problems. When such plans are not followed and harmful interference results, we expect very substantial justification to be provided, and we expect that justification to be consistent with Section &#;

Section is the part of the FCC rules that says (among other things):

  • In all respects not specifically covered by FCC Rules each amateur station must be operated in accordance with good engineering and good amateur practice.
  • Each station licensee and each control operator must cooperate in selecting transmitting channels and in making the most effective use of the amateur service frequencies.

The FCC has clearly stated that they expect hams to share the bands by following accepted band plans. More importantly, this is the right thing to do for the benefit of the amateur radio service.

Summary

The fine points of the band plan can be a bit confusing. However, a few simple guidelines can help, especially if you are operating only FM.

    • FM voice simplex and repeater operation should occur only above MHz (and only in the OSCAR subband if you are working an FM satellite)
    • When operating through a repeater, make sure you are tuned to the published repeater frequency with the proper transmit offset.
    • When operating simplex, use a simplex frequency designated by the band plan.

We&#;ve only covered the 2m band in this article. If you are operating on other bands, be sure to check the appropriate band plan before transmitting. Note that this article is written for amateur radio operation in Colorado. Other locations may have different band plans.

amBob K0NRSours: https://www.k0nr.com/wordpress/my-articles/2m-frequency/
2 Meter Sideband (SSB) at Rib Mountain State Park

ARRL

A band plan refers to a voluntary division of a band to avoid interference between incompatible modes.

Resources

and - meter bands

General, Advanced and Amateur Extra class licensees are authorized to use these Amateur Bands

Amateurs wishing to operate on either 2, or meters must first register with the Utilities Technology Council online at https://utc.org/plc-database-amateur-notification-process/. You need only register once for each band.

– 1 W EIRP maximum

- KHz:5 W EIRP maximum, except in Alaska within miles of Russia where the power limit is 1 W EIRP.

Meters ( MHz)

- CW
- Digital Modes
CW QRP
SSB, SSTV and other wideband modes
SSB QRP
- Experimental
- Beacons

80 Meters ( MHz)

RTTY/Data DX
RTTY/Data
DX window
SSTV
AM calling frequency

60 Meters (5 MHz channels)

*Only one signal at a time is permitted on any channel

*Maximum effective radiated output is W PEP

USB phone1 and CW/RTTY/data2
USB phone1 and CW/RTTY/data2
USB phone1 and CW/RTTY/data2
USB phone1 and CW/RTTY/data2
USB phone1 and CW/RTTY/data2

1. USB is limited to kHz

2. CW and digital emissions must be centered kHz above the channel frequencies indicated in the above chart

40 Meters ( MHz)

RTTY/Data DX
RTTY/Data
SSTV
AM calling frequency

30 Meters ( MHz)

RTTY
Packet

20 Meters ( MHz)

RTTY
Packet
NCDXF Beacons
Packet
SSTV
AM calling frequency

17 Meters ( MHz)

RTTY
Packet

15 Meters ( MHz)

RTTY/Data
SSTV

12 Meters ( MHz)

RTTY
Packet

10 Meters ( MHz)

CW
RTTY
CW
Beacons
Phone
SSTV
AM
Satellite Uplinks or Downlinks
Repeater Inputs
FM Simplex
Repeater Outputs

6 Meters ( MHz)

CW, beacons
beacon subband
SSB, CW
DX window
SSB calling
All modes
Nonvoice communications
Digital (packet) calling
Radio remote control (kHz channels)
Pacific DX window
Repeater inputs (19 channels)
Digital repeater inputs

Simplex (six channels)

Repeater outputs (19 channels)
Digital repeater outputs
Repeater inputs (except as noted; 23 channels)
, FM simplex
TEST PAIR (input)
Repeater output (except as noted; 23 channels)
Primary FM simplex
Secondary FM simplex
TEST PAIR (output)
Repeater inputs (except as noted; 19 channels)
Remote base FM simplex
Simplex
, , , Radio remote control
Repeater outputs (except as noted; 19 channels)
, , , Radio remote control
, Simplex

2 Meters ( MHz)

EME (CW)
General CW and weak signals
EME and weak-signal SSB
National calling frequency
General SSB operation
Propagation beacons
New OSCAR subband
Linear translator inputs
FM repeater inputs
Weak signal and FM simplex (,03,05,07,09 are widely used for packet)
Linear translator outputs
FM repeater outputs
Miscellaneous and experimental modes
OSCAR subband
Repeater inputs
Simplex
National Simplex Calling Frequency
Repeater outputs
Repeater outputs
Simplex
Repeater inputs

Notes: The frequency MHz is used in some areas as a repeater input. This band plan has been proposed by the ARRL VHF-UHF Advisory Committee.

Meters ( MHz)

Weak-signal modes
EME
Propagation beacons
SSB & CW calling frequency
Weak-signal CW & SSB
Local coordinator's option; weak signal, ACSB, repeater inputs, control
FM repeater inputs only
FM simplex
Digital, packet
Links, control
Local coordinator's option; FM simplex, packet, repeater outputs
Repeater outputs only

Note: The MHz band plan was adopted by the ARRL Board of Directors in July

70 Centimeters ( MHz)

ATV repeater or simplex with MHz video carrier control links and experimental
ATV simplex with MHz video carrier frequency
EME (Earth-Moon-Earth)
Weak-signal CW
cm calling frequency
Mixed-mode and weak-signal work
Propagation beacons
Mixed-mode and weak-signal work
Auxiliary/repeater links
Satellite only (internationally)
ATV repeater input with MHz video carrier frequency and repeater links
Repeater inputs and outputs (local option)
Shared by auxiliary and control links, repeaters and simplex (local option)
National simplex frequency
Repeater inputs and outputs (local option)


33 Centimeters ( MHz)

FrequencyRange

Mode

Functional Use

Comments

FM/other including DV OrCW/SSB

Repeaterinputs 25 MHzsplit pairedwith those in orWeaksignal

kHzchannel spacing Note 2)

CW/SSB

Weak signal

CW/SSB

Weak signal calling

Regional option

CW/SSB

Weak signal

FM/other including DV

Repeaterinputs 25 MHzsplit pairedwith those in

kHzchannel spacing

CW/SSB

Beacons andweak signal

CW/SSB

Weak signal calling

Regional option

CW/SSB

Weak signal

Mixedmodes

Mixed operations including control links

Analog/digital

Broadbandmultimediaincluding ATV,DATV and SS

Notes 3)4)

Analog/digital

Broadbandmultimedia including ATV,DATV and SS

Notes 3)4)

Analog/digital

Broadbandmultimediaincluding ATV,DATV and SS

Notes 3)4)

FM/other including DV

Repeateroutputs 25 MHzsplit pairedwith those in

kHzchannel spacing

FM/other including DV

Simplex

FM/otherincluding DV

Repeateroutputs 25 MHzsplitpairedwith those in

kHzchannelspacingNotes 5)6)

Notes:
1)Significantregional variations in both currentband utilization andthe intensityand frequencydistribution ofnoise sourcesprecludeone plan thatis suitable forall parts ofthe country. These variationswill requiremanyregional frequencycoordinatorstomaintain band plansthatdifferinsome respectsfromany national plan. Aswithall band plans, locallycoordinated plans always take precedence over anygeneral recommendations such as a national band plan.

2)Maybe used foreitherrepeaterinputs orweak-signal as regional needs dictate

3)Division into channels and/orseparation ofuseswithin these segmentsmaybe done regionallybased on needs and usage,such asfor2 MHz-wide digital TV.

4) These segments mayalso be designated regionallyto accommodatealternative repeater splits.

5)SimplexFMcalling frequency orregionallyselected alternative.

6)Additional FMsimplexfrequencies maybe designated regionally.

23 Centimeters ( MHz)

Frequency Range

SuggestedEmissionTypes

FunctionalUse

ATV

ATVChannel#1

FM,digital

Point-to-pointlinkspairedwith

Digital

ATV

ATVChannel#2

FM,digital

Point-to-pointlinkspairedwith

FMATV

Regionaloption

Various

Satelliteuplinks,Experimental,SimplexATV

FM,digital

Repeaterinputs,25 kHzchannelspacing,pairedwith

FM,digital

Repeaterinputs,25 kHzchannelspacing,pairedwith(Regionaloption)

ATV

ATVChannel#3

FM,digital

Repeateroutputs,25 kHzchannelspacing,paired with

Various

BroadbandExperimental,SimplexATV

FM,digital

Repeateroutputs,25 kHzchannelspacing,paired with(Regionaloption)

FM

FMsimplex

FM

NationalFMsimplexcallingfrequency

NarrowBandSegment

Various

NarrowBandImage,Experimental

CW,SSB,digital

EME

CW,SSB

WeakSignal

CW,SSB

CW,SSBcallingfrequency

CW,digital

Beacons

Various

GeneralNarrowBand

Digital

Note: Theneed toavoid harmful interferencetoFAAradarsmaylimitamateur useof certainfrequenciesinthevicinityoftheradars.


13 Centimeters ( and MHz)

FrequencyRange

Emission
Bandwidth

Functional Use

MHz                   

 Analog& Digital, includingfull duplex;pairedwith  

<50kHz

Analog& Digital; pairedwith

SSB,CW,digital weak-signal

3kHzorless

WeakSignal EME Band

3kHzorless

 SSB,CW,digital weak-signal(Note1)

3kHzorless

Beacons

6kHzorless

SSB,CW,digital weak-signal &NBFM

<50kHz

Analog& Digital; pairedwith

MHz

Analog& Digital, pairedwith (Note 2)

NON-AMATEUR

MHz

Analog& Digital, includingfull duplex;pairedwith

<50kHz

Analog& Digital; pairedwith

Experimental

<50kHz

Analog& Digital; pairedwith -

MHz

Analog& Digital, includingfull duplex;pairedwith

6kHzorless

AmateurSatellite Communications

22 MHzmax.

Broadband Modes (Notes3,4)

Notes:
is theNationalWeak-SignalCallingFrequency
2: isallocatedonaprimary basis toWirelessCommunicationsServices (Part 27).Amateur operations in this segment,whichare secondary, maynotbepossiblein allareas.
3: Broadbandsegmentmaybeusedforanycombination ofhigh-speeddata(e.g. protocols),AmateurTelevision andother high-bandwidth activities. Divisioninto channels and/or separation ofuses withinthis segmentmaybedoneregionallybasedon needs and usage.
4: is theJapanese EMEtransmitfrequency


Note:
The following band plans were adopted by the ARRL Board of Directors in

MHz

Level I - Major Band DivisionsLevel II - Sub-Band DivisionsLevel IIISuggestedSuggested
Frequency Range (MHz)Frequency Range (MHz)Specific Freq.Emission TypesEmission B.W.
FromToWidthFromToWidthMHz(Note 1)(Note 1)Functional Use
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex - MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
Experimental
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex> MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
Experimental
RADIO ASTRONOMY PROTECTED BAND (Note 4)
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex - MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
RADIO ASTRONOMY PROTECTED BAND (Note 4)
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex - MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
Experimental
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex50 kHz or lessAnalog & Digital; paired with
OFDM, others22 MHz max.Broadband Modes (Note 3)
ATVAmateur Television of all authorized modulation standards/formats at local option
CW, SSB, NBFM6 kHz or lessAmateur Satellite Communications
CW, SSB, Digital3 kHz or lessWeak Signal EME Band
CW, SSB, Digital3 kHz or lessTerrestrial Weak Signal Band - Future (Note 2)
CW, SSB, DigitalEME Calling Frequency
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex> MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex - MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex - MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
Experimental
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex - MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
kHz or lessCrossband linear translator (input or output)
CW, SSB, NBFM, Digital6 kHz or lessTerrestrial Weak Signal Band - Legacy (Note 2)
6 kHz or lessWeak Signal Terrestrial Calling Frequency
CW, Digital1 kHz or lessPropagation Beacons
Analog & Digital, including Full Duplex50 kHz or lessAnalog & Digital; paired with ; MHz Split
OFDM, others22 MHz max.Broadband Modes (Note 3)
ATVAmateur Television of all authorized modulation standards/formats at local option

9 cm Band Plan Notes

Note 1 – Includes all other emission modes authorized in the 9 cm amateur band whose necessary bandwidth does not exceed the suggested bandwidths listed.

Note 2 – Weak Signal Terrestrial legacy users are encouraged to move to to MHz as time and resources permit.

Note 3 – Broadband segments may be used for any combination of high-speed data (e.g. protocols), Amateur Television and other high-bandwidth activities.  Division into channels and/or separation of uses within these segments may be done regionally based on need and usage.

Note 4 – Per ITU RR from WRC, these band segments are also used for Radio Astronomy.Amateur use of these frequencies should be first coordinated with the National Science Foundation ([email protected]).

5 Centimeters ( MHz)

FrequencyRange

Emission
Bandwidth

Functional Use

Amateur Satellite; Up-Link Only

- MHz

Experimental

 >= MHz

Analog & Digital; paired with MHz (Note 2)

>= 25 kHz and <1 MHz

Analog & Digital; paired with MHz

<= 50 kHz

Analog & Digital; paired with MHz

< 6 kHz

SSB, CW, Digital Weak-Signal

< 3kHz

EME

< 6 KHz

SSB, CW, Digital Weak-Signal (Note 1)

< 3 KHz

Beacons

< 6 KHz

SSB, CW, Digital Weak-Signal

<=50kHz

Experimental

>= kHz

Experimental

Experimental

 

 >=25 kHz and <1 MHz

Analog& Digital; paired with MHz

<=50 kHz

Analog & Digital; paired with MHz

MHz

Experimental

Amateur Satellite; Down-Link Only
>= MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with MHz (Note 2)

Note 1: is the National Weak-Signal Calling Frequency

Note 2: Broadband segment may be used for any combination of high-speed data (eg: protocols), Amateur Television and other high-bandwidth activities. Division into channels and/or separation of uses within this segment may be done regionally based on needs and usage.


3 Centimeters ( MHz )

FrequencyRange

Emission
Bandwidth

Functional Use

- Experimental
<= kHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
>=25 kHz and <1 MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
<=50 kHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
Experimental
<=50 kHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
>=1 MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with (Note 2)
Wideband Gunnplexers
<= kHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
>=25 kHz and <1 MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
<=50 kHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
6 kHz or lessSSB, CW, Digital Weak-Signal & NBFM (Note 1
6 kHz or lessBeacons
6 kHz or lessSSB, CW, Digital Weak-Signal & NBFM
<=50 kHzAnalog & Digital; paired with
>=1 MHzAnalog & Digital; paired with (Note 2)
Space, Earth & Telecommand Stations

Note 1:  is the National Weak-Signal Calling Frequency

Note 2: Broadband segment may be used for any combination of high-speed data (eg: protocols), Amateur Television and other high-bandwidth activities. Division into channels and/or separation of uses within this segment may be done regionally based on needs and usage.

Above GHz*

All modes and licensees (except Novices) are authorized Amateur Bands above GHz.

* US amateurs must check Sections , , and for sharing requirements before operating.

Sours: http://www.arrl.org/band-plan

Meter range 2 band

2-meter band

range of radio frequencies

The 2-meteramateur radio band is a portion of the VHF radio spectrum that comprises frequencies stretching from &#;MHz to &#;MHz in International Telecommunication Union region (ITU) Regions 2 (North and South America plus Hawaii) and 3 (Asia and Oceania) [1][2] and from &#;MHz to &#;MHz in ITU Region 1 (Europe, Africa, and Russia). [3][4] The license privileges of amateur radio operators include the use of frequencies within this band for telecommunication, usually conducted locally within a range of about miles (&#;km).[citation needed]

History[edit]

[icon]
This section needs expansion with:
  • The meter band predecessor
  • The s(?) VHF reallocation shuffle
  • ITU allocation
  • The rise of FM and repeaters.. You can help by adding to it. (January )

Amateur radio[edit]

The Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union[5] allows amateur radio operations in the frequency range from to &#;MHz. subject to variation by country.

Operation[edit]

A 2-meter, handheld transceiver.

Because it is local and reliable, and because the licensing requirements to transmit on the 2-meter band are easy to meet in many parts of the world,[6] this band is one of the most popular non-HF ham bands. This popularity, the compact size of needed radios and antennas, and this band's ability to provide easy reliable local communications also means that it is also the most used band for local emergency communications efforts, such as providing communications between Red Cross shelters and local authorities.[7] In the US, that role in emergency communications is furthered by the fact that most amateur-radio operators have a 2-meter handheld transceiver (HT), handie-talkie, or walkie-talkie.[citation needed]

Repeaters and FM[edit]

Much of 2-meter FM operation uses a radio repeater, a radio receiver and transmitter that instantly retransmits a received signal on a separate frequency. Repeaters are normally located in high locations such as a tall building or a hill top overlooking expanses of territory. On VHF frequencies such as 2-meters, antenna height greatly influences how far one can talk. Typical reliable repeater range is about 25 miles (40&#;km). Some repeaters in unusually high locations, such as skyscrapers or mountain tops, can be usable as far out as 75 miles (&#;km). Reliable range is very dependent on the height of the repeater antenna and also on the height and surroundings of the handheld or mobile unit attempting to access to the repeater. Line of sight would be the ultimate in reliability. The typical hand held two meter FM transceiver produces about 5 watts of transmit power. Stations in a car or home provide higher power, 25 to 75 watts, and may use a simple vertical antenna mounted on a pole or on the rooftop of a house or a vehicle.[citation needed]

Even without repeaters available, however, the 2-meter band provides reliable crosstown communications throughout smaller towns, making it ideal for emergency communications. Antennas for repeater work are almost always vertically polarized since 2-meter antennas on cars are usually vertically polarized. Matching polarization allows for maximum signal coupling which equates to stronger signals in both directions. Simple radios for FM repeater operation have become plentiful and inexpensive in recent years.[citation needed]

Communications beyond 50&#;miles[edit]

While the 2&#;meter band is best known as a local band using the FM mode, there are many opportunities for long distance (DX) communications using other modes. A well-placed antenna and high-power equipment can achieve distances of up to a few hundred miles, and fortuitous propagation conditions called "signal enhancements" can on occasion reach across oceans.[citation needed]

A set of two long Yagi antennasfor the 2&#;meter band fed in phase to obtain more gain and narrow main lobe of radiation (station WA6PY).

The typical 2&#;meter station using CW (Morse code) or SSB (single side band) modes consists of a radio driving a power amplifier generating about –&#;Watts of RF power. This extra power is usually fed to a multi-element, compound antenna, usually a Yagi-Uda or Yagi, which can beam most of the signal power towards the intended receiving station. "Beam antennas" provide substantial increase in signal directivity over ordinary dipole or vertical antennas. Antennas used for distance work are usually horizontally polarized instead of the vertical polarization customarily used for local contacts.[citation needed]

Stations that have antennas located in relatively high locations with views (from the antenna) clear to the horizon have a big advantage over other stations. Such stations are able to communicate – miles (–&#;km) consistently. It is usual for them to be heard at distances far beyond line of sight on a daily basis without help from signal enhancements. Signal enhancements are unusual circumstances in the atmosphere and ionosphere that bend the signal path into an arc that better follows the curve of the Earth, instead of the radio waves traveling in the usual straight line off into space. The best known of these are:[citation needed]

  • tropospheric ducting
  • sporadic&#;E
  • meteor scatter

These and other well-known forms of VHF signal enhancement that allow trans-oceanic and trans-continental contacts on 2&#;meters are described in the subsections that follow within this section.[citation needed]

With the exception of sporadic&#;E, directional antennas such as Yagis or log periodic antennas are almost essential to take advantage of signal enhancements. When a well-equipped station with its antenna well-located “high and in the clear” is operating during a signal enhancement, astonishing distances can be bridged, momentarily approaching what is regularly possible on shortwave and mediumwave.[citation needed]

Tropospheric ducting[edit]

Occasionally, signal bending in the atmosphere's troposphere known as tropospheric ducting can allow 2&#;meter signals to carry hundreds or even thousands of kilometers as evidenced by the occasional 2&#;meter contact between the west coast of the United States and the Hawaiian Islands, the northeast region to the Florida coast, and across the Gulf of Mexico. These so-called "Openings" are generally first spotted by amateurs operating SSB (Single Side Band)[8] and CW (Continuous Wave)[9] modes since amateurs using these modes typically are attempting distance contacts (DX) and alert for signal enhancement events.[citation needed]

Completion of contacts using these weak signal modes involves the exchange of signal level reports and location by grid square which is known as the Maidenhead Locator System. Two way ducting contacts can have very strong signals and are often made with moderate power, small antennas, and other types of modes. Long distance ducting contacts do occur using FM modes as well but for the most part go unnoticed by many FM operators.[citation needed]

Sporadic E[edit]

Another form of VHF propagation is called Sporadic E propagation. This is a phenomenon whereby radio signals are reflected back towards Earth by highly ionized segments of the ionosphere which can facilitate contacts in excess of 1, miles (1,&#;km) with very strong signals received by both parties.[citation needed]

Unlike some other long distance modes, high power and large antennas are often not required to make contact with distant stations via a sporadic&#;E event. A two-way conversation can take place over a distance of several hundred kilometers or more, often using low levels of RF power. Sporadic&#;E is a rare and completely random propagation phenomenon lasting anywhere from a matter of minutes to several hours.[citation needed]

Satellite communications[edit]

Satellites are basically repeater stations in orbit. The 2&#;meter band is also used in conjunction with the centimeter band, or the meter band and various microwave bands via orbiting amateur radio satellites. This is known as cross band repeating. On-board software defines what mode or band is in use at any particular time and this is determined by amateurs at so-called earth stations who control or instruct the satellite behavior. Amateurs know what mode is in use via published internet schedules.[citation needed]

For instance, a favorite mode is Mode&#;"B" or "V/U" which simply indicates the uplink and downlink frequencies or bands the satellite is currently using. In this example, V/U means VHF/UHF or VHF uplink with UHF downlink. Most amateur satellites are Low Earth Orbit satellites, or LEO's as they are affectionately known, and generally are at about &#;miles (&#;km) altitude. At that height, amateurs can expect reception distances of up to around 3, miles (4,&#;km).[citation needed]

A few amateur satellites have very high elliptical orbits. These satellites can reach altitudes of 30,&#;miles (50,&#;km) above the earth where an entire hemisphere is visible providing outstanding communications capabilities from any two points on the earth within line of sight of the satellite; distances that are far beyond the reach of the LEOs.[citation needed]

Transequatorial propagation[edit]

Transequatorial propagation, also known as (TEP), is a regular daytime occurrence on the 2&#;meter band over the equatorial regions and is common in the temperate latitudes in late spring, early summer and, to a lesser degree, in early winter. For receiving stations located within ±&#;10&#;degrees of the geomagnetic equator, equatorial E-skip can be expected on most days throughout the year, peaking around midday local time.[citation needed]

Meteor burst[edit]

By speeding up Morse code using analog tape or digital modes such as JT6M or FSK, very short high-speed bursts of digital data can be bounced off the ionized gas trail of meteor showers. The speed required to confirm a two way contact via a short lived ionized meteor trail can only be performed by fast computers on both ends with very little human interaction.[citation needed]

One computer will send a request for contact and if successfully received by a distant station, a reply will be sent by the receiving stations computer usually via the same ionized meteor trail to confirm the contact. If nothing is received after the request, a new request is transmitted. This continues until a reply is received to confirm the contact or until no contact can be made and no new requests are sent. Using this high speed digital mode, a full two way contact, can be completed in one second or less and can only be validated using a computer. Depending on the intensity of the ionized meteor trail, multiple contacts from multiple stations can be made off the same trail until it dissipates and can no longer reflect VHF signals with sufficient strength. This mode is often called burst transmission and can yield communication distances similar to sporadic&#;E as described above.[citation needed]

Auroral propagation[edit]

Another phenomenon that produces upper atmosphere ionization suitable for 2-meter DXing are the auroras. Since the ionization persists much longer than meteor trails, voice modulated radio signals may sometimes be used, but the constant movement of the ionized gas leads to heavy distortion of the signals causing the audio to sound "ghostly" and whispered. In most instances using auroral reflections on 2&#;meters, audio or voice is totally unintelligible and ham operators wishing to make contacts via aurora, must resort to CW (Morse code).[citation needed]

CW signals returning from an auroral reflection have no distinct sound or tone but simply sound like a swishing or whooshing noise. An exception to this phenomenon would be the 6&#;meter band which is significantly lower in frequency than the 2&#;meter band by 94&#;MHz. In many instances 6&#;meter voice modes are readable but with varying degrees of difficulty when reflected off an aurora. Therefore, when using an auroral event as a radio signal reflector, the reflected signal strength and signal intelligibility decreases with increasing transmitting frequency.[citation needed]

Moonbounce (EME)[edit]

To communicate over the longest distances, hams use moon bounce. VHF signals normally escape the Earth's atmosphere, so using the moon as a target is quite practical. Due to the distance involved and the very high path loss getting a readable signal bounced off the moon involves high power ~1,&#;Watts and steerable high gain antennas. Receiving these very weak return signals, again involves the use of high gain antennas (usually the same ones used to transmit the signal) and a very low-noise front end RF amplifier and a frequency stable receiver.[citation needed]

However, new and recent technological advances in weak signal detection has allowed the successful reception of signals off the moon using much smaller or less well equipped stations allowing reception of signals that are "in the noise" and not audible to the human ear. One of these modes is JT65 which is a digital mode. Due to the delay of the signal traveling to the moon and back (travel time approx. &#;seconds), a person transmitting may hear the end of their own transmission returning.[10]

The Brendan Awards[edit]

The Irish Radio Transmitters Society has provided a series of awards for the first successful all-natural, non-bounce contacts on 2&#;metres between the North American and European continents. Named for Saint Brendan of Clonfert, the three awards differentiate between successful "traditional" phone/CW contact (the Brendan Trophies), successful "non-traditional" digital two-way contact (the Brendan Shields), and an award for the first verified reception in either direction, regardless of method (the Brendan Plates).[11] Attempts at the Brendan awards have established contact, but further examination revealed the signal was bounced off the International Space Station.[12]

Los Angeles County statute[edit]

Los Angeles County has a statute (which dates from ) concerning mounting a "shortwave receiver" in a motor vehicle.[13] While the statute specifically states one of the forbidden bands as –&#;MHz, most two-meter transceivers can tune into this portion of the spectrum at least as receivers, and are therefore unlawful to mount in a motor vehicle in Los Angeles County. While arrest rarely happens, the statute is still on the books. There are also California Penal Code statutes covering similar activities. Recently, however, with new legislation in various states, licensed ham radio operators are exempt from these prohibitions including exemptions from using a radio while driving. Such prohibitions or exemptions vary from state to state.[citation needed]

Note that federal law preempts many local ordinances and state laws that may prohibit a licensed amateur radio operator from possessing an amateur radio based on its factory ability to receive frequencies outside of ham bands.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

International amateur radio frequency allocations[v]

Range Band ITU Region 1ITU Region 2ITU Region 3
LF m– kHz
MF m– kHz
m– MHz– MHz
HF80 / 75 m– MHz– MHz– MHz
60 m– MHz
40 m– MHz– MHz– MHz
30 m[w]– MHz
20 m– MHz
17 m[w]– MHz
15 m– MHz
12 m[w]– MHz
10 m– MHz
VHF6 m– MHz
(– MHz)[y]
– MHz
4 m[x]– MHzN/A
2 m– MHz– MHz
mN/A – MHzN/A
UHF70 cm– MHz– MHz
(– MHz)[y]
33 cmN/A – MHzN/A
23 cm– GHz
13 cm– GHz
SHF9 cm– GHz[y]– GHz
5 cm– GHz– GHz– GHz
3 cm– GHz
cm– GHz
EHF6 mm– GHz
4 mm[y] GHz[x] – GHz– GHz
mm– GHz
2 mm– GHz
1 mm– GHz
THFSub-mmSome administrations have authorized spectrum for amateur use in this region;
others have declined to regulate frequencies above &#;GHz.

[v] All allocations are subject to variation by country. For simplicity, only common allocations found internationally are listed. See a band's article for specifics.
[w] HF allocation created at the World Administrative Radio Conference. These are commonly called the "WARC bands".
[x] This is not mentioned in the ITU's Table of Frequency Allocations, but many individual administrations have commonly adopted this allocation under "Article&#;".
[y] This includes a currently active footnote allocation mentioned in the ITU's Table of Frequency Allocations. These allocations may only apply to a group of countries.

See also: Radio spectrum, Electromagnetic spectrum
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-meter_band
Extend Range With 2m VHF SSB Radio.

Thread: HAM: Reasonable 2 meter range?

VHF (30 MHz to MHz) propogation range is esentially line-of-sight, although some refraction (and, to a lesser degree, some reflection) may also tend to increase the distance of propogation. For most individuals, the horizon is approximately 11 miles away. If either the transmitting or receiving antenna are raised above eye level, the propogation distance will be increased accordingly.

In general, propogation distance will be affected by: (a) Tyoe of terrain; (b) Height of antennas above ground; (c) Antenna design; (d) Transmitted power output; (e) Receiver sensitivity; and (f) Receiver sensitivity -- usually in that order. All that in the absence of external electromagnetic and/or electrostatic interference.

The use of the term "maximum distance" is somewhat misleading, because very long distances have been reported in some unusual circumstances. However, it sounds like you are concerned with something that might be more accurately described as "maximum normally reliable distance." For typical vehicle-to-vehicle simplex communications, that's probably something in the vicinity of miles. For typical mobile-to-base-station simplex communications, that more likely to be around miles. For base-sation-to-base-station simplex communications, distance will be primarily a function of antenna height and antenna gain, but certainly comm in excess of 75 miles would not be considered rare. At such distances, unimpeded line-of-sight is everything. I can recall achieving reliable VHF comm at distances of greater than miles with only a basic 1/4-wavelength antenna -- but I was operating equipment in a military aircraft at altitudes of 10, to 20, feet. If reliable comm in excess of 50 miles is desired with essentially ground-level equipment, then perhaps the use of HF (3 MHz to 30 MHz) gear is indicated.

Sours: http://www.glfwda.org/

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