Mn2s3 anion

Mn2s3 anion DEFAULT
Ionic and Covalent Compound Naming 4.2 Ionic Compounds: - are made up of positive and negative ions arranged in a crystal structure. Covalent Molecules: - are made up of atoms sharing electrons. Name of an ionic compound = cation anion-ide e.g.1: magnesium and oxygen cation anion-ide Magnesium ox + ide Magnesium oxide e.g.2: what is the name of Ca3N2? Ca = calcium; N = nitrogen Drop the end of the anion and add –ide Calcium nitride e.g.3: What is the name of BaCl2? Barium chloride Calcium nitride Remember: positive charges must = negative charges e.g.1: What is the formula for magnesium phosphide? e.g.2: What is the formula for calcium oxide? Calcium is Ca2+ Oxygen is O2– 1 Ca2+ ion & 1 O2– ion Magnesium is Mg2+ Phosphorous is P3– Lowest common multiple of 2 and 3 is 6 3 Mg2+ ions & 2 P3– ions (6 +ve’s & 6 –ve’s) Magnesium phosphide = Mg3P2 Calcium oxide = CaO Examples on whiteboard (unless we get a projector by the time this class comes!): – Lithium nitride – Barium sulphide Multivalent: some transition elements have more than one charge. Roman numerals are used after the metal name to indicate which ion was used e.g. What is the formula for manganese (III) sulphide? This manganese is Mn3+. Sulphur is S2Lowest common multiple of 3 and 2 is 6 2 Mn3+ ions and 3 S2- ions Mn2S3 What is the name for TiF4? Titanium can be 4+ Ti or 3+ Ti Fluorine is F– From the ratio in the formula you can find out it is Ti4+ 1 Ti4+ ion and 4 F– ions Titanium (IV) fluoride are made up of several atoms joined together by covalent bonds The whole group has a + or – charge, not individual atoms. e.g. What is the formula of sodium sulphate? Na+ and SO42– Na2SO4 e.g. 2: What is the name of the compound KClO? K+=potassium, ClO-=hypochlorite Potassium hypochlorite e.g. 3: What is the formula for Calcium nitrate? Ca2+ and NO3Ca(NO3)2 * Note the brackets around NO3 show there are two of the nitrate ions present Prefixes are used before the atom name to indicate the number of atoms in the molecule. Examples: CO = carbon monoxide, CO2 = carbon dioxide Write the most metallic atom (furthest left) first, then add -ide to the end of the second atom’s name What is the name of the molecule Si3P6? Trisilicon hexaphosphide What is the chemical formula for the molecule trinitrogen tetrachloride? N3Cl4 To determine whether a compound is ionic or covalent: Examine the formula Ionic compounds start with a metal or the ammonium ion Covalent compounds start with a non-metal
Sours: https://studylib.net/doc/9780048/ionic-and-covalent-compound-naming
Problem 2SC

Write the name for the compound with the formula Mn2S3.

Step-by-Step Solution:

Solution 2SCStep 1 of 1:Here, we are asked to write the name for the compound with the formula Mn2S3.The compound is made of Manganese (Mn) and Sulfur (S). The ion formed by Manganese is (Mn3+) and it is the cation and it has charge of +3. The ion formed by sulfur is Sulfide ion (S2-) and it is an anion and has a charge of -2. When the charges of the compounds are not equal, the charge of one ion becomes the subscript of the other ion. Hence, the formula of the compound is Mn2S3. While writing the compound name, the charge of the cation is indicated using the roman numeral because Mn is a transition metal and has variable charge. Hence, the name of the compound is manganese(III) sulfide. ________________

Textbook: General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: Structures of Life
Edition: 4

Author: Karen C. Timberlake
ISBN: 9780321750891

Sours: https://studysoup.com/tsg/144429/general-organic-and-biological-chemistry-structures-of-life-4-edition-chapter-5-problem-2sc
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  • Manganese oxide electrode with excellent electrochemical performance for sodium ion batteries by pre-intercalation of K and Naions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengya; Du, Qinghua; Su, Li; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Guiling; Ma, Zhipeng; Gao, Weimin; Qin, Xiujuan; Shao, Guangjie

    2017-05-22

    Materials with a layered structure have attracted tremendous attention because of their unique properties. The ultrathin nanosheet structure can result in extremely rapid intercalation/de-intercalation of Naions in the charge-discharge progress. Herein, we report a manganese oxide with pre-intercalated K and Naions and having flower-like ultrathin layered structure, which was synthesized by a facile but efficient hydrothermal method under mild condition. The pre-intercalation of Na and K ions facilitates the access of electrolyte ions and shortens the ion diffusion pathways. The layered manganese oxide shows ultrahigh specific capacity when it is used as cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It also exhibits excellent stability and reversibility. It was found that the amount of intercalated Naions is approximately 71% of the total charge. The prominent electrochemical performance of the manganese oxide demonstrates the importance of design and synthesis of pre-intercalated ultrathin layered materials.

  • Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) with controllable properties are highly desirable to improve battery performance. In this paper, we use a combined experimental and simulation approach to study the SEI formation on hard carbon in Li and Na-ion batteries. We show that with proper additives, stable SEI can be formed on hard carbon by pre-cycling the electrode materials in Li or Na-ion electrolyte. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest that the ion transport in the SEI layer is kinetically controlled and can be tuned by the applied voltage. Selective Na and Li-ion SEI membranes are produced using the Na or Li-ion based electrolytes respectively. The large Naion SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the small Li ion SEI shuts off the Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI with film-forming electrolyte additives or preforming a SEI on the electrodes’ surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to

  • Investigating the Effect of Glass Ion Release on the Cytocompatibility, Antibacterial Eflcacy and Antioxidant Activity of Y2O3 / CeO2 doped SiO2-SrO-Na2O glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Placek L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect on ion release and cytocompatibility of Yttrium (Y and Cerium (Ce are investigated when substituted for Sodium (Na in a 0.52SiO2-0.24SrO-0.24-Na2OMOglass series (where MO= Y2O3 or CeO2. Glass leaching was evaluated through pH measurements and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES analysiswhere the extract pH increased during incubation (11.2 - 12.5. Ion release of Silicon (Si, Na and Strontium (Sr from the Con glass was at higher than that of glasses containing Y or Ce, and reached a limit after 1 day. Ion release from Y and Ce containing glasses reached a maximum of 1800 μg/mL, 1800 μg/mL, and 10 μg/mL for Si, Na, and Sr, respectively. Release of Y and Cewas below the ICP- OES detection limit 75% of bacteria at a 9% extract concentration. Antioxidant capacity (mechanism for neuroprotection was evaluated using the ABTS assay. All glasses had inherent radical oxygen species (ROS scavenging capability with Con reaching 9.5 mMTE.

  • Neutralization of Hydroxide Ion in Melt-Grown NaCl Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterson, Dumas A.

    1961-01-01

    Many recent studies of solid-state phenomena, particularly in the area of crystal imperfections, have involved the use of melt-grown NaCl single crystals. Quite often trace impurities in these materials have had a prominent effect on these phenomena. Trace amounts of hydroxide ion have been found in melt-grown NaCl crystals. This paper describes a nondestructive method of neutralizing the hydroxide ion in such crystals. Crystals of similar hydroxide content are maintained at an elevated temperature below the melting point of NaCl in a flowing atmosphere containing. dry hydrogen chloride. Heat treatment is continued until an analysis of the test specimens shows no excess hydroxide ion. A colorimetric method previously described4 is used for this analysis.

  • Proposal for secondary ion beams and update of data taking schedule for 2009-2013

    CERN Document Server

    Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the proposal for secondary ion beams and the updated data taking schedule of the NA61 Collaboration. The modification of the original NA61 plans is necessary in order to reach compatibility between the current I-LHC and NA61 schedules. It assumes delivery of primary proton beam in 2009-2012 and of primary lead beam in 2011-2013. The primary lead beam will be fragmented into a secondary beam of lighter ions. The modified H2 beam line will serve as a fragment separator to produce the light ion species for NA61 data taking. The expected physics performance of the NA61 experiment with secondary ion beams will be sufficient to reach the primary NA61 physics goals.

  • High-Rate, Durable Sodium-Ion Battery Cathode Enabled by Carbon-Coated Micro-Sized Na3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 Particles with Interconnected Vertical Nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-08

    Na-ion batteries have been regarded as promising alternatives for Li-ion batteries due to the extensive sodium reserves in the world. Na3V2(PO4)3 has been proved to be a good candidate of the cathode materials in Na-ion batteries but the intrinsic low electrical conductivity and sluggish kinetics handicapped its application. Here, 3D hierarchical Na3V2(PO4)3 particles are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, constructed by carbon-coated 2D Na3V2(PO4)3 nanowalls. Superior cell performance of high rate capability and cycle stability are observed in the well-defined structure. As the cathode in Na-ion batteries, it delivers a high capacity almost reaching the theoretical one and exhibits high capacity retention. The enhanced rate capability and cycle performance can be attributed to the improved electrical conductivity from the interconnected carbon layer and the shortened ion diffusion length and high specific surface area from the nanowalls.

  • Na-ion batteries based on the inorganic BN nanocluster anodes: DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, K; Hosseinian, A; Bekhradnia, A; Vessally, E; Edjlali, L

    2017-06-01

    It has been recently indicated that the Li-ion batteries may be replaced by Na-ion batteries because of their low safety, high cost, and low-temperature performance, and lack of the Li mineral reserves. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we studied the potential application of B 12 N 12 nanoclusters as anode in Na-ion batteries. Our calculations indicate that the adsorption energy of Na + and Na are about -23.4 and -1.4kcal/mol, respectively, and the pristine BN cage to improve suffers from a low cell voltage (∼0.92V) as an anode in Na-ion batteries. We presented a strategy to increase the cell voltage and performance of Na-ion batteries. We showed that encapsulation of different halides (X=F - , Cl - , or Br - ) into BN cage significantly increases the cell voltage. By increasing the atomic number of X, the Gibbs free energy change of cell becomes more negative and the cell voltage is increased up to 3.93V. The results are discussed based on the structural, energetic, frontier molecular orbital, charge transfer and electronic properties and compared with the performance of other nanostructured anodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-21

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Naions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO(4) in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO(4) in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO(4) is almost comparable to C-LiFePO(4) by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.

  • Na+,K+-ATPase amino acids involved in transport of the 3rd sodium ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rikke; Einholm, Anja P.; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak

    Available evidence indicates that two of the three Na+ ions bound in the E1 form occupy approximately the same positions as the K+ ions in E2, but the location of the third Na+ ion is unsolved. We have previously found a marked decrease in Na+ affinity for activation of phosphorylation in the hum...

  • Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1); approximate to 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1)). Unusual selective/ preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.

  • Detailed investigation of Na2.24FePO4CO3 as a cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weifeng; Zhou, Jing; Li, Biao; Ma, Jin; Tao, Shi; Xia, Dingguo; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Na-ion batteries are gaining an increased recognition as the next generation low cost energy storage devices. Here, we present a characterization of Na3FePO4CO3 nanoplates as a novel cathode material for sodium ion batteries. First-principles calculations reveal that there are two paths for Naion migration along b and c axis. In-situ and ex-situ Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) point out that in Na3FePO4CO3 both Fe2+/Fe3+ and Fe3+/Fe4+ redox couples are electrochemically active, suggesting also the existence of a two-electron intercalation reaction. Ex-situ X-ray powder diffraction data demonstrates that the crystalline structure of Na3FePO4CO3 remains stable during the charging/discharging process within the range 2.0–4.55 V. PMID:24595232

  • Visible laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles prepared by droplet rapid drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mao-Xu; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Xing, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl nanoparticles were firstly prepared by heat induced explosion on silicon wafer. ► We found that laser induced ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are more prominent. ► We found that water adsorption can efficiently enhance laser induced ion emissions. ► The ultra-photothermal effect in NaCl nanoparticles was observed and explained. - Abstract: A novel convenient way for the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) nanoparticles on silicon wafer is proposed by using a droplet rapid drying method. The laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles with and without water treatment is demonstrated by using a laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, with laser intensity well below the plasma formation threshold. It is found that the positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are obviously higher than that from microsize NaCl particles under soft 532 nm laser irradiations, and water adsorption can efficiently enhance the ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles. The initial kinetic energies of the emitted ions are estimated as 16–17 eV. The synergy of the ultra-thermal effect in nanomaterials, the defect-mediated multiphoton processes, and the existence of intermediate states in NaCl-water interfaces are suggested as the mechanisms.

  • Controlled phase stability of highly Na-active triclinic structure in nanoscale high-voltage Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7 cathode for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Jae-Chan; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing demand for high energy density in energy-storage systems, a high-voltage cathode is essential in rechargeable Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The operating voltage of a triclinic-polymorph Na2CoP2O7, also known as the rose form, is above 4.0 V (vs. Na/Na+), which is relatively high compared to that of other cathode materials. Thus, it can be employed as a potential high-voltage cathode material in Na-ion batteries. However, it is difficult to synthesize a pure rose phase because of its low phase stability, thus limiting its use in high-voltage applications. Herein, compositional-engineered, rose-phase Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2) nanopowder are prepared using a wet-chemical method. The Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C cathode shows high electrochemical reactivity with Naions at 4.0 V, delivering high capacity and high energy density.

  • Improving the Performance of Layered Oxide Cathode Materials with Football-Like Hierarchical Structure for Na-Ion Batteries by Incorporating Mg2+ into Vacancies in Na-Ion Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Yao; Wang, Huibo; Chen, Dongfeng; Sun, Kai; Yang, Wenyun; Yang, Jinbo; Liu, Xiangfeng; Han, Songbai

    2018-04-09

    The development of advanced cathode materials is still a great interest for sodium-ion batteries. The feasible commercialization of sodium-ion batteries relies on the design and exploitation of suitable electrode materials. This study offers a new insight into material design to exploit high-performance P2-type cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The incorporation of Mg 2+ into intrinsic Na + vacancies in Na-ion layers can lead to a high-performance P2-type cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. The materials prepared by the coprecipitation approach show a well-defined morphology of secondary football-like hierarchical structures. Neutron power diffraction and refinement results demonstrate that the incorporation of Mg 2+ into intrinsic vacancies can enlarge the space for Na-ion diffusion, which can increase the d-spacing of the (0 0 2) peak and the size of slabs but reduce the chemical bond length to result in an enhanced rate capability and cycling stability. The incorporation of Mg 2+ into available vacancies and a unique morphology make Na 0.7 Mg 0.05 Mn 0.8 Ni 0.1 Co 0.1 O 2 a promising cathode, which can be charged and discharged at an ultra-high current density of 2000 mA g -1 with an excellent specific capacity of 60 mAh g -1 . This work provides a new insight into the design of electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • n dependence of l-changing collisions between He+ ions and Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, K.B.; Crosby, D.A.; Rolfes, R.

    1980-01-01

    l-changing collisions were observed in a crossed He + -ion/Na--Rydberg-atom beam experiment. Transitions nd → (l > or = 3) induced in Na by ion impact at 450 and 600 eV were studied for n=20--34. Cross sections vary approximately as n 5 and have magnitudes of order 10 8 A 2 , a few hundred times the geometric cross section of the Rydberg atoms

  • Na/K pump inactivation, subsarcolemmal Na measurements, and cytoplasmic ion turnover kinetics contradict restricted Na spaces in murine cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Min; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2017-07-03

    Decades ago, it was proposed that Na transport in cardiac myocytes is modulated by large changes in cytoplasmic Na concentration within restricted subsarcolemmal spaces. Here, we probe this hypothesis for Na/K pumps by generating constitutive transsarcolemmal Na flux with the Na channel opener veratridine in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Using 25 mM Na in the patch pipette, pump currents decay strongly during continuous activation by extracellular K (τ, ∼2 s). In contradiction to depletion hypotheses, the decay becomes stronger when pump currents are decreased by hyperpolarization. Na channel currents are nearly unchanged by pump activity in these conditions, and conversely, continuous Na currents up to 0.5 nA in magnitude have negligible effects on pump currents. These outcomes are even more pronounced using 50 mM Li as a cytoplasmic Na congener. Thus, the Na/K pump current decay reflects mostly an inactivation mechanism that immobilizes Na/K pump charge movements, not cytoplasmic Na depletion. When channel currents are increased beyond 1 nA, models with unrestricted subsarcolemmal diffusion accurately predict current decay (τ ∼15 s) and reversal potential shifts observed for Na, Li, and K currents through Na channels opened by veratridine, as well as for Na, K, Cs, Li, and Cl currents recorded in nystatin-permeabilized myocytes. Ion concentrations in the pipette tip (i.e., access conductance) track without appreciable delay the current changes caused by sarcolemmal ion flux. Importantly, cytoplasmic mixing volumes, calculated from current decay kinetics, increase and decrease as expected with osmolarity changes (τ >30 s). Na/K pump current run-down over 20 min reflects a failure of pumps to recover from inactivation. Simulations reveal that pump inactivation coupled with Na-activated recovery enhances the rapidity and effectivity of Na homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, an autoregulatory mechanism enhances cardiac Na/K pump activity when

  • Hexagonal-layered Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2.05} via solvothermal synthesis as an electrode material for aqueous Na-ion supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yan; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Bao; Chang, Kun [Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Province for Green Manufacturing of Fine Chemicals, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453007 (China); Chang, Zhaorong, E-mail: [email protected] [Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Province for Green Manufacturing of Fine Chemicals, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453007 (China); Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang [National Research Council of Canada, V6T 1W5, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    The layered sodium manganese oxides Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2.05} material was synthesized using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} precursors via a solvothermal method at different temperatures. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2.05} sample has a high crystallinity with hexagonal crystal system. The electrochemical performance was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance measurements and galvanostatic charge–discharge tests in symmetric Na-ion supercapacitors with 1 mol L{sup −1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as electrolyte. The Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2.05} material shows a high specific capacity of about 162.5 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} and a high coulombic efficiency approaching 100%. Even at a current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}, the discharge capacity of the material can reach to 146 F g{sup −1}. This electrode material holds great promise for practical applications. - Highlights: • Novel electrode material for supercapacitor: hexagonal-layered Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2.05}. • Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2.05} is synthesized using Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} precursors via solvothermal method. • Obtained Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2.05} exhibits superior electrochemical performance.

  • Application of silicene, germanene and stanene for Na or Li ion storage: A theoretical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Dianat, Arezoo; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-01-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene likely to graphene are atomic thick material with interesting properties. We employed first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate and compare the interaction of Na or Li ions on these films. We first identified the most stable binding sites and their corresponding binding energies for a single Na or Li adatom on the considered membranes. Then we gradually increased the ions concentration until the full saturation of the surfaces is achieved. Our Bader charge analysis confirmed complete charge transfer between Li or Naions with the studied 2D sheets. We then utilized nudged elastic band method to analyze and compare the energy barriers for Li or Naions diffusions along the surface and through the films thicknesses. Our investigation findings can be useful for the potential application of silicene, germanene and stanene for Na or Li ion batteries.

  • New hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Mieritz, Daniel; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Chan, Candace K.

    2017-03-01

    NASICON-type materials with general formula AxM2(PO4)3 (A = Li or Na, M = Ti, V, and Fe) are promising candidates for Li- and Na-ion batteries due to their open three-dimensional framework structure. Here we report the electrochemical properties of hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H0.4Ti2(PO4)2.4(SO4)0.6 (HTPS), a new mixed polyanion material with NASICON structure. Micron-sized HTPS aggregates with crystallite grain size of ca. 23 nm are synthesized using a sol-gel synthesis in an acidic medium. The properties of the as-synthesized HTPS, ball-milled HTPS, and samples prepared as carbon composites using an in-situ glucose decomposition reaction are investigated. A capacity of 148 mAh g-1 corresponding to insertion of 2 Li+ per formula unit is observed in the ball-milled HTPS over the potential window of 1.5-3.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Lithiation at ca. 2.8 and 2.5 V is determined to occur through filling of the M1 and M2 sites, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used characterize the HTPS before and after cycling. Evaluation of the HTPS in a Na-ion cell is also performed. A discharge capacity of 93 mAh g-1 with sodiation at ca. 2.9 and 2.2 V vs. Na/Na+ is observed.

  • Use of Ion-Channel Modulating Agents to Study Cyanobacterial Na+ - K+ Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomati Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an experimental design aimed to investigate changes in total cellular levels of Na+ and K+ ions in cultures of freshwater filamentous cyanobacteria. Ion concentrations were measured in whole cells by flame photometry. Cellular Na+ levels increased exponentially with rising alkalinity, with K+ levels being maximal for optimal growth pH (~8. At standardized pH conditions, the increase in cellular Na+, as induced by NaCl at 10 mM, was coupled by the two sodium channel-modulating agents lidocaine hydrochloride at 1 &mgr;M and veratridine at 100 &mgr;M. Both the channel-blockers amiloride (1 mM and saxitoxin (1 &mgr;M, decreased cell-bound Na+ and K+ levels. Results presented demonstrate the robustness of well-defined channel blockers and channel-activators in the study of cyanobacterial Na+- K+ fluxes.

  • Sours: https://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/n/na+ions+reaching.html
    How To Name Ionic Compounds With Transition Metals

    Complete the table below by writing the symbols for the cation and anion that make up each ionic compound. The first row has been completed for you. Ionic compound: Mn2S3, MnBr4, FeF3, CuI

    Hi there!

    We are asked to determine the ions that make up the each of the ionic compound given.

    Recall:

    • Cations (positively charged) and anions (negatively charged) combine with the crisscross of charges to become subscripts. 

    • Subscripts that are divisible are simplified and subscript 1 is no longer indicated.

    • In ionic compounds, cations are always written first.

    A. Mn2S3

    • Mn a has a subscript of 2 which must have come from S → S2-

    • has a subscript of 3 which must have come from Mn → Mn3+

    The cation of Mn2S3 is Mn3+ while its anion is S2-

    B. MnBr4

    • Mn a has a subscript of 1 which must have come from Br → Br-

    • Br has a subscript of 4 which must have come from Mn → Mn4+

     

    The cation of MnBr4 is Mn4+ while its anion is Br-

    C. FeF3

    • Fe a has a subscript of 1 which must have come from F → F-

    • has a subscript of 3 which must have come from Fe → Fe3+

     

    The cation of FeF3 is Fe3+ while its anion is F-

    D. CuI

    • Cu a has a subscript of 1 which must have come from I → I-

    • has a subscript of 1 which must have come from Cu → Cu+

    The cation of CuI is Cu+ while its anion is I-

    Sours: https://www.clutchprep.com/questions/11786/complete-the-table-below-by-writing-the-symbols-for-the-cation-and-anion-that-make-up-each-ionic-comp

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